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Thread: ,dk;',m; - jrefrm ppfyGJrsm;

  1. #1
    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid   mokenlay is on a distinguished road mokenlay's Avatar
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    Lightbulb ,dk;',m; - jrefrm ppfyGJrsm;

    15&mpkavmufpNyD; aemufqHk; 2001 ckESpf arv 1&ufaeYrSmNzpfcJYwJY bef;yef;aemif (Ban Pang Noon) pcef;odrf; wdkufyGJtxd xdkif;eJY Nrefrm wyfrawmfawG[m rBumcP qdkovdk &ifqdkifwdkufyGJBuD;awG NzpfcJY&ygw,f/ bef;yef;aemif pcef;wdkufyGJudk omref e,fNcm;y#dyutqifY wdkufyGJav;vdkU cyfazmYazmY aNymr,fqdk aNymvdk&ayrJU 'DYrwdkifcif a&SUuNzpfcJYBuwJY xdkif;eJY NrefrmBum;u ppfyGJawGuawmY edKifiHodrf; ppfyGJBuD;awGNzpfBuygw,f/

    'DppfyGJBuD;awG qifEGJcJYBupOfwkef;u Nrefrm eJY ,dk;',m;vdkU NrefrmawGbufu ac:cJYBuwJY xdkif;awG[m wzufeJYwzuf tiftm;csif; olromudk,fromtaNcaersKd;? vufeufcsif;wef;wltaetxm;rsKd;eJY wzufeJYwzuf aNcwltaexm;rsKd;rSm qifEGJcJYBuwJY ppfyGJBuD;awGyg/

    Nrefrmbufu tedKif&NyD; ,dk;',m;NrdKUawmfudk odrf;edKifwmrsKd;&SdcJYovdk? ,dk;',m;u NyefwdkufvdkU Nrefrmrif; aNcvGwfvufvGwfNyefqkwfaNy;vm&wm? ,dk;',m;u NrefrmNrdKUawmfudk odrf;NyD; ynm&SifawG zrf;ac:oGm;wmrsKd;vnf; &SdcJYygw,f/

    wu,fqdk 'DppfyGJawG[m *sif*spfcef&JU ppfyGJawG? eydkvD,H&JU ppfyGJawG? [pfwvm&JU ppfyGJawGvdk ur
    mrSm wooaNymusef&pfatmif emrnfrausmfayrJU t&kdif;tpdkif;awGvdk a[; 0g; nmoHay;NyD; xdk;xpfowfckwfBuwJY wdkufyGJrsKd;awGr[kwfyJ pnf;pepfuswJY ppfcsDppfqkwf? aNymifaNrmufwJY aoe*FAsL[m? aooyfwJY ppfa&;uGyfuJrSK pwmawGudk tEkynmaNrmufatmif toHk;cscJYBuwJY ppfyGJBuD;awGyg/

    'DtaBumif;udk uRefawmfBum;zl;oavmuf zwf&zl;oavmuf NyefaNymcsifygw,f? xHk;pHtwdkif; uRefawmfaNymNywm tvGwfoabmeJY uRefawmfBum;zl;xm;wmawG zwfzl;wmawGudk uRefawmfem;vnfovdk NyefaNymrSmNzpfwJYtwGuf ynm&SifawGtwGuf vHk;0tav;xm;zdkY rvdkwJY uav;uvm; awmifaNymaNrmufaNymawGom NzpfygaBumif;eJY 0efcH&&if a'gufwmoef;xGef;eJY a'gufwm qlepfcsLwifwm&mEGwf wdkY yl;wGJ NyKpkxm;wJY usLvmavmifuGefwu
    odkvf tm&SavUvma&;Xmexkwf On Both Side of The Tenasserim Range (History of Siamese-Burmese Relation) qdkwJYpmtkyf&,f csefcsKdif0rfa0gif&JU xdkif;bmomeJY a&;xm;wJY xdkif;-Nrefrm ppfyGJrsm; qdkwJYpmtkyf&,f? [dkwpfp'Dwpfp rSefeef;&,f? rygrNzpf 0duD&,f aygif;NyD; Bum;zl;em;0av;eJY vHk;axG;&TD;cs xm;Ncif;omNzpfygaBumif;/
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  2. #2
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    Default ,dk;',m;-Nrefrm ppfyGJrsm;


    ukef;abmifacwfOD; NrefrmUNrif;pD;wyfom; (uonf;vlrsKd;Nzpf[ef&Sd)


    ukef;abmifacwfOD; NrefrmUaNcvsifwyfom;


    ukef;abmifcwf NrefrmUwyfrawmft&m&SdwpfOD;


    18&mpk,dk;',m;ppfom;rsm; (wwd,&mrrif;vufxuf ykefuefol avmrif; tEkazmif udk zrf;vmpOf)


    19 &mpk ,dk;',m;ppfom;rsm;
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  3. #3
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    Default ,dk;',m;-Nrefrm ppfyGJrsm;


    ukef;abmifacwfaESmif; NrefrmUwyfrawmfom;rsm; (eHygwfoHk;wpfa,mufudk "NrvdkUa&;xm;ygw,f? uRefawmfYtxif NynfolYppfyHkpH &GmawGuqGJvmwJY ,leDazmif;r&SdwJY olawGudk t*FvdyfawGu "NrvdkU owfrSwfyHkyJ)


    ukef;abmifacwfaESmif; NrefrmUwyfrawmftwGif;rS &Srf;wyfom;wpfOD;
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  4. #4
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    Default ,dk;',m;-Nrefrm ppfyGJrsm;


    NrefrmUqifwyf (omreftqifYvdkUxifygw,f)


    emrnfausmf NrefrmUwdkufppfAsL[mwpfckNzpfwJY uif;vufraxmif ppfAsL[m


    'kwd,ur
    mppfrSm emrnfausmfcJYwJY *smrefwdkY&JU Blitzkrieg eJYtvm;qifw,fvdkU AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u aNymzl;wJY EGm;vm;Ob wdkufxHk;qdkwJY emrnfBuD;NrefrmUwdkufppfAsL[m
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  5. #5
    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid   mokenlay is on a distinguished road mokenlay's Avatar
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    Default ,dk;',m;-Nrefrm ppfyGJrsm;

    1/

    ordkif;aemufcH


    wu,fawmU ,dk;',m;vdk odBuwJY t,k'
    ,rif;awGeJY NrefrmNynftv,fydkif;udk taNcNyKavY&SdwJY Armrif;awG[m c&pfESpf 1531 rSm awmifilbk&ifNzpfvmwJY wyifa&TxD;&JU awmifilacwfrwdkifcifutxd wdkuf&kdufxdawGYrSKr&SdcJYBubl;wJY/ rxdawGYqdk Armrif;awG tiftm;aumif;wJY yk*Hacwfu t,k',qdkwmu ay:rSray:ao;wmudk;/

    t,k'
    ,qdkwJYNrdKUudk yk*H{u&mZfedKifiHawmfBuD; NydKuGJtNyD; ESpfaygif; 100 avmufrSwnfcJYwmwJY/ t,k', pwifwnfaxmifcJYwJUolu Oaxmif;qdkwJYol? 'Dvludk tcsKdYu w&kwfrGwfqvifwpfa,mufvdkU aNymBuw,f? tcsKdYuvnf; rav;rGwfqvifwJY? wcsKdYuawmU a&SYaNrmufbufu rGef*dkeJY [efw&kwfawGzdvdkU awmifbufudktdusvmNyD; rGefawG crmawG&JU &SdNyD;om;NrdKUNyedKifiHawGudk odrf;,lvdkU edKifiHopfxlaxmifwJY wdkif&Srf;vlrsKd;wpfa,mufyJ qdkBuygw,f/

    b,fvdkyJNzpfNzpf 'Dvl[m qzefbl&DNrpf? y&mqpfNrpf? avmUbl&DNrpf? ausmufz&m;Nrpf pwJYNrpfBuD; ig;oG,f0ef;&Hywfxm;vdkU uRef;vdkNzpfaevdkU a&aBumif;qufoG,fa&;udk taNcNyKwJY acwfBuD;rSm ppfa&; edKifiHa&; pDyGm;a&;t& tcsufcsmuswJYae&mrSm t,k'
    ,qdkwJY NrdKUNyedKifiHopfudk c&pfESpf 1350 avmufrSm pwifxlaxmifygowJY/ owdk;rifzsm; tif;0udk xlaxmifcsdefeJY rwdrf;r,drf;aygY/



    16 &mpk taemufwdkif;om;wdkUa&;qGJxm;Buaom t,k',NrdKUyHk

    owdk;rif;zsm;&JU tif;0[m ta&SYeJYaNrmufbufrSm arm&Srf; NrdKUNyedKifiHav;awG&Sdaeovdk awmifbufrSmvJ 0g&l&DwnfaxmifcJYwJY &mrn ([Hom0wD) rGefedKifiH&SdaeavawmU t,k',eJY wdkuf&kduf xdawGYwmrsKd;r&Sdbl;wJY/

    NyD;awmU tJ'Dtcsdeft,k'
    ,[mvnf; ol&JUteD;uyfqHk;NydKifbuf pkcdkxdkif;wdkU ta&SUbufu crmawG&JU NrdKUNyedKifiHwdkU aNrmufbufu vef;em;NrdKUNyedKifiHwdkY awmifbufu rav;uRef;qG,fwdkYudkyJ vTrf;rdk;edKifzdkU BudK;pm;aewmrdkU taemufbuf NrefrmNynfudk pdwf0ifpm;rSKr&Sdbl;wJY/

    'gayrJU t,k'
    ,&JU aNcmufa,mufaNrmufrif; tifo&mZmvufxufrSm a&S;urGefNrdKUawGNzpfcJYwJY uefzefzpfqdkwJYNrdKYeJU wmYcfqdkwJYNrdKU yl;aygif;NyD; ykefuefwmudk ESdrfeif;&if; t,k',wyfawG rJvef;rdkawmifBum;Nzwfvrf; (Nr0wD-rJYaqmuf) uae NrefrmNynfxJ0ifvmNyD; *sKdif;NrdKUudkodrf;ygowJY/ tJ'Dtcsdefu [Hom0wD&JU bk&ifu &mZm"d&mZf? tif;0eJY ppfwdkufaewJY &mZm"d&mZf[m csufNcif;awmifbufudk Nyefqif;vmNyD; ,dk;',m;wyfawGudk Nyefwdkufxkwfygw,f/

    &mZm"d&mZf&JU wdkufppfudk
    ,dk;',m;wyfawG &ifrqdkifedKifygbl; csufNcif;NyefqkwfaNy;ygw,f? &mZm"d&mZfu qufwdkufcsifayrJU tif;0&JUtE&m,fudkaBumufwmeJY e,fpyfuaeNyefvSnfYcJYygowJY? 'gayrJU tJ'DtcsdefupNyD; t,k',[m [Hom0wDudk tcsdeftawmfBumwJYtxd rxdyg;awmYygbl;/

    'gayrJU 1491 ckESpfrSm 10a,mufaNrmuf t,k',bk&if bdk&Gefr[m&mZmxd&wfvufxufrSmawmU ,dk;',m;wyfawG[m [Hom0wDydkif xm;0,fNrdKYudk odrf;zdkUBudK;pm;Nyefygw,f? tJ'Dtcsdef[m [Hom0wD&JU "rapwDrif; ewf&GmpHvdkU om;awmf 'kwd,Anm;&H eef;wufp rif;aNymif;rif;vGJtcsdefqdkayrJY [Hom0wD a&Tacwfa&mufaecsdefrdkU ,dk;',m;wyfawG[m t&SKH;eJYyJ &ifqdkifoGm;&Nyefygw,f/

    aemufydkif;rSm 'kwd,Anm;&Hvufxuf tiftm;odyfaumif;aewJY [Hom0wDudk ,dk;',m;u rxdyg;&JawmUayrJU awmifilrif; wyifa&TxD;eJY ppfxdk;&if; tvJvJtuGJuGJNzpfaewJY 'um&Gwfydrif;vufxufrSmawmU [Hom0wD&JU awmifydkif;e,faNrawGudk olYydkifeufvdkU t,k'
    rif;awGu owfrSwfvkdufyHkyJ/

    tJ'DrSm wyifa&TxD;eJYNidrdNyD; ,dk;',m;-Nrefrm yxrppfyGJBuD; pwifygawmUw,f/
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  6. #6
    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid   mokenlay is on a distinguished road mokenlay's Avatar
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    Default ,dk;',m;-Nrefrm ppfyGJrsm;

    2/

    pwifxdawGYrdBuNcif;


    wyifa&TxD;[m yxrqHk; yJcl;udk xdk;ppfawG tBudrfBudrfqifNyD; av;ESpfavmuf cufcufcJcJ wdkufcdkuftNyD; c&pfESpf 1538 avmufrSm odrf;ydkufcJY&ygw,f/

    ykodrf-aNrmif;Nr? 'v-yJcl; eJY rkw
    r qdkNyD; 32NrdKUpD&SdwJY e,fBuD; oHk;e,feJY pkpnf;wnfaxmifxm;wJY [Hom0wD (&mrn)rSm rif;aeNynfawmfNzpfwJY yJcl;e,fusoGm;awmU usefwJY taemufbufu ykodrf-aNrmif;NreJY awmifbufu rkwra'oawG[m acgif;aqmifrJYoGm;wJY e,faNrawG NzpfukefwmaygY/

    wyifa&TxD;udk r,SOfedKifbl;qdkwm oabmaygufwJY ykodrf-aNrmif;Nru rGeftBuD;tuJawG[m wyifa&TxD;vufatmufudk op
    mcHvmBuayrJU awmifbufu rkwruawmU wyifa&TxD;udk opmrcHbl;wJY/ 'geJYyJ wyifa&GxD;[m c&pfESpf 1540 avmufrSm olYudkopmrcHwJY rkwrudk odrf;ydkufzdkU awmifydkif;udk ppfcsDygawmUw,f/

    tJ'DtcsdefrSm rkw
    rudktkyfcsKyfaewJY [Hom0wDbk&ifcHu apmAnm;? 'Dvlu wyifa&TxD;udk ppf&SKH;oGm;wJY [Hom0wDbk&if 'um&Gwfyd&JU a,mufzNzpfNyD; tpGrf;tp&Sdolwpfa,mufwJY? NyD;awmU ola,mufz 'um&Gwfydu yJcl;rSm rif;vkyfaewkef;uvnf; a,mufzudk odyf*&kpdkufwmr[kwfyJ bk&ifwpfyg;vdk olYtiftm;udkol NznfUwif;aecJYolwJY/ NyD;awmU ol[m rkwrwzufurf; armfvNrdKUudk pm;&wJY Anm;OD;eJYuvnf; a,mufzawmfNyefowJY/


    ukef;abmifacwf rkw
    rNrdKU&SKUcif;

    wyifa&TxD; olUqDvmawmUr,fqdkwm aocsmaeawmU apmAnm;[m olNrdKUrkw
    rudk cHppftwGuf taotcsmNyifqifw,f? cHppftwGuf Nyifqifw,fqdkawmY e,faNrudk wwfedKifoavmuf usKHUypf&wmaygY/ tJ'DrSm rkwreJY vSrf;wJYa'oawG txl;oNzifY aumUbdef;? usKH'dk;? *sKdif; pwJYa'oawG[m rkwr-armfvNrdKif eJY qufoG,fa&; NywfawmufoGm;ovdkNzpfoGm;w,f? 'geJYyJ 'Da'oawG[m eD;pyf&m tm;udk;&SmwJYoabmeJY ta&SYbufu t,k',&JU opmcHawG NzpfoGm;Bua&mwJY/ ('Dae&mrSm tJ'DNrdKUawG&JUtBuD;tuJawG[m rdrdwdkU&yfwnfa&;twGuf a&S;uwnf;u t,k',udka&m taemufbufu [Hom0wDudkyg opmcHxm;cJYyHkyJ)


    rkw
    raNryHk (xdkif;eef;wGif;&mZif0ifrSwfwrf;)

    wyifa&TxD;[m vawGtrsm;BuD; ydwfqdkYNyD; a&aBumif; Bunf;aBumif; xdk;ppfAsL[mtrsKd;rsKd;udk oHk;NyD;rS rkwrudk vuf&odrf;ydkufvdkufedKifygowJY/ 'DwdkufyGJ[m tifrwefudkBuD;us,fcJYNyD; Nrefrmppfordkif;rSm yxrqHk; ay:wl*DppfAdkvfBuD;awGOD;pD;wJY acwfrSDa&wyfwdkufyGJ? ta0;ypftaNrmufoHk;wdkufyGJ awGudkvnf; awGYcJY&wJY wdkufyGJBuD;ygyJ/

    rkw
    rudk odrf;,l&&SdNyD;wJYaemufrSm rkwr 32NrdKUu rGeftBuD;tuJawG[m wyifa&TxD;&JU opmudkcHvmBuygowJY? 'gayrJU t,k',&JU opmudkcH,lxm;w,fqdkwJY *sKdif;uawmY 'DvdkopmcHyGJrSm rygbl;vdkUqdkw,f/

    'geJYyJ wyifa&TxD;[m olYudkop
    mrcHwJY *sKdif;a'oudk wyfvTwfNyD; odrf;ydkufapw,f/ 'DvdkeJY *sKdif;a'o[m wyifa&TxD;&JU vufatmufudk a&mufoGm;wmaygY/

    aemufydkif;rSm wyifa&TxD;[m [Hom0wDxD;eef;&JU tquftEG,f rGeftBuD;uJawGudkyJ rkw
    r 32NrdKUudk tkyfcsKyfapzdkU NyefvnfcefYxm;NyD; aNrmufbuf aNrvwfa'oeJY NrefrmNynftv,fydkif; aNrmufydkif;pwJY tif;0&JU ydkifeufa[mif;udk odrf;,lzdkY aNrmufbufudk NyefcsDoGm;ygw,f/


    NrefrmwyfESifY ,dk;',m;wyfrsm; xdyfwdkuf wdkufyGJaNryHk

    olU&JUydkifeufawGvdkU owfrSwfxm;wJY *sKdif;a'oudk Nrefrmwyfu odrf;,lvdkufaBumif; t,k'
    ,Bum;awmY b,f'Dtwdkif;aervJ? csufNcif;ppfNyifNyD; *sKdif;a'oudk odrf;,lxm;wJY wyifa&TxD;&JU NrefrmwyfawGudk wdkufawmUwmaygY/

    tJ'DrSm wyifa&TxD;&JU NrefrmwyfawGeJY t,k'
    wyfawG pwifxdawGUBuygawmUw,f/
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  7. #7
    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid   mokenlay is on a distinguished road mokenlay's Avatar
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    Default ,dk;',m;-Nrefrm ppfyGJrsm;

    3/

    ay:wl*Drsm;

    ta&SYawmiftm&SqDodkU aNcNzefYvmBuwJY taemufwdkif;om;awGxJrSm tJ'Dacwfu aNctoGufqHk; NzpfcJYolawGu ay:wl*D? 'wfcsf eJY NyifopfawGyJwJY/

    'gayrJU 'wfcsfeJY NyifopfawGu yxrydkif;rSm ukefoG,fa&;udk t"duxm;ayrJU ay:wl*DuawmY aNcoGufvufoGuf ukefoG,fa&;omru omoemNyKvkyfief;awGtwGufyg vSKyf&Sm;BuwJYtNyif udkvdkeDe,faNrtNzpf odrf;ydkufzdkUawmif BudK;yrf;BuygowJY? ay:wl*DawG&JU tdE
    d,bk&ifcH tzGefqdk vufxufrSmqdk tNyif;xefqHk;yJwJY? 'DvdkeJY c&pfESpf 1511 avmufrSm rv’um[m ay:wl*DwdkY&JU yxrqHk;udkvdkeDNzpfvmygava&m? tJ'Duae ukeful;vk,uf tedyfzrf; "g;NywdkufNyD; BuD;yGm;csrf;om NyefvmwJY ay:wl*DawGudkBunfYNyD; Oa&myay:wl*DawG[m BuD;yGm;csrf;om;a&;twGuf ta&SYudk wzGJzGJeJY a&mufvmwmaygY/

    'Day:wl*DawG[m tif'dkcsKdif;em;uRef;qG,fay:u vufeufedKifiHawGrSm aBu;pm;ppfom;tNzpf trSKxrf;BuwJYtcg olwdkYudk iSm;&rf;wJY vufeufedKifiHtBuD;tuJawG[m olwdkUvdkcsifwJY atmifyGJom&&if a&TaiG rdef;r t0wftxnf aNrae&m NrdKU&Gm awGudk qkvmbftNzpf &uf&ufa&ma&m ay;wwfwmudk awGY&awmU aBu;pm;ppfom;vkyfwJY ay:wl*DawGrsm;vmowJY/ 'Dae&mrSm aoewfawG taNrmufawG[m 'Day:wl*DaBu;pm;ppfom;awG tvkyf&zdkUt"duuswJY taBumif;tcsufygyJ/

    [dk;a&S;uwnf;u 'Da'oom;awGrSm ,rf;udktoHk;NyKNyD; ypfazguf&wJY w&kwfbufuae &vmw,fvdkU ,lq&wJY pdefaNymif;qdkwm a&S;uwnf;u&SdNyD;om;yJ/ tif;0-[Hom0wD ppfwkef;u aNrmif;NrwdkufyGJrSm &mZm"d&mZf&JU tBuHay;trwf rif;uHpD qifxufrSmaoewfrSefwm? 'kwd,rif;acgif&JUom; tif0bk&ifa&Teef;ausmY&Sif &Srf;awGeJYwdkufwJY wdkufyGJrSm aoewfrSefwm pwmawG&SdcJYygw,f/ 'gayrJY tJ'Dwkef;u taNrmufawGu av;vHvGef;NyD; NrdKUodrf;wdkufyGJawGavmufrSmom toHk;uswm? aoewfawGuvnf; ,rf;rD;ul;zdkUcufwm? ypfrSwfudkaNzmifYaNzmifYroGm;wm? vGifYpiftm;enf;wm pwJYtm;enf;csufawGeJYrdkU vsifNrefrSKeJY &JpGrf;ow
    dudk taNccHwJY ppfAsL[mrsKd;eJY tqifraNyvSygbl;/

    'gayrJU 15&mpkOD;ydkif; taemufwdkif;om;awG,lvmwJY taNrmufawG aoewfawGu t&ifolwdkYoHk;aeus pdefaNymif;qdkwJY vufeufxuf o,f,l&wmaygYyg;NyD; xda&mufrSKwdusovdk ta0;BuD;u ypfrSwfudkvSrf;ypfedKifwJY pGrf;&nf&Sdwmudk olwdkYowdNyKrdvmBuw,f/ 'Dae&mrSm oHvsifwdkufyGJrSm NyifopfoabFmu rGefawGbufudkulNyD; ta0;BuD;uvSrf;ypfvdkufwJY taNrmufqHu olYoabFm&JU vif;,Ofwdkifudk xdrSefoGm;wmBunfYNyD; tif;0bk&ifrif;acgif rsuf&nfuswm owd&BuOD;r,f xifygw,f/ 'DvdkyJ taemufwdkif;om;awG&JU aoewfawGuvnf; ypf&wmvG,fulvmNyD; ypfrSwfudkydkwdusovdk tuGmta0;vnf;ydkw,f? 'DawmU rQm;awG 'l;av;awGxuf ydktm;udk;&vmwmaygY/

    NrefrmbufrSm tJ'Dtcsdefavmufuwnf;u 'DvdkacwfrSDvufeufawGeJYpwifxdawGYNyD; 'DvufeufawG&JU tpGrf;udk oabmaygufcJYBuNyDqdkayrJU udk,fwdkifoHk;pGJedKifpGrf;awmU r&Sdao;ygbl;? 'DawmU oHk;pGJwwfolawGudk iSg;&rf;toHk;NyK&ygw,f? 'DawmU BuG,f0wJY bk&ifawGuom olwdkYudk toHk;NyKedKifwmyg/ tJ'DvlawGuawmU 'Dvufeufudk uRrf;uRrf;usifusif toHk;NyKwwfwJY Oa&mywdkufom;awGeJY Oa&myom;awG&JU vufeufudk &if;ESD;wJY tm&yfeJY tdEd
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    t,k'
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    @u t"duNzpfvmygava&m/

    'DaBu;pm;ppfom;awGeJY olwdkY&JU vufeufawGudk ppfyGJrSm pNyD;xdxda&muf toHk;csolawGu rGefbk&if 'um&Gwfyd&JU trwfBuD;ESpfyg;NzpfwJY Anm;avm eJY Anm;usefyJwJY/ 'DtrwfESpfa,muf[m ay:wl*DaBu;pm;awGoHk;NyD; taNrmufi,fav;awGudk qifxufwifvdkU wyifa&TxD;&JU awmifilwyfawGudk wdkufygw,f? 'DppfAsL[m yxrqHk;toHk;NyKwJY ppfAsL[mNzpfNyD; tifrwefvnf;xda&mufygw,f? wyifa&TxD;&JU awmifilwyfawG tawmfcHcJY&wJY AsL[mygyJ/
    NyD;awmU xdk;ppfrSm t&ifuoHk;cJYwJY vSHawGtpm; vSHpGyfwyfxm;wJY aoewfawGoHk;&if ydkxufNrwfwmvnf; awGY&owJY/

    tifrwefppfynmtNrifaumif;wJY wyifa&TxD;[m 'Dvdkqef;opfwJY vufeufawGtoHk;NyKNyD; wdkufwJY enf;pepfudk odyfoabmusoGm;wmaygY? aemufydkif;rSm wyifa&TxD;[m aoewfawG taNrmufawG aBu;pm;ppfom;awGoHk;NyD; a&SYNrefrmUppfAsL[mawGtay: rGrf;rHwm topfxGifwm trsKd;rsKd;vkyfNyD; ppfyGJawGrSm toHk;NyKawmUwmyJwJY/

    'DvdkyJ t,k'
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    t,k'
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    'Duae ay:wl*DaBu;pm;awGudk t,k'
    ,rif;awGu toHk;NyKvmBuw,f/

    txl;oNzifY 14a,mufaNrmuf t,k'
    ,rif; csKdif&csmbk&ifvufxufrSm ay:wl*DaBu;pm;awG&JU tcef;u@[m ,dk;',m;ppfa&;rSm ododomomta&;ygvmw,f/ wlNzpfwJY 13a,mufaNrmuf t,k',rif; &mZm'g"d&mZfudk tmPmodrf;NyD; 1535ESpfrSm t,k',xD;eef;udk &vmwJY csKdif&csm[m ay:wl*DaBu;pm;awG&JU rm;puwfwyfawGudk ppfa&;rSm txl;toHk;NyKygw,f? txl;oNzifU &ifqdkifwdkufyGJawGrSm NrSm;awGeJYta0;u ypfwmxuf rm;puwfawGeJY ypfwJY ay:wl*DawG&JU ppfa&;udk olodyfoabmusygowJY/
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    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid   mokenlay is on a distinguished road mokenlay's Avatar
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    Default ,dk;',m;-Nrefrm ppfyGJrsm;

    4/
    *sKdif;wdkufyGJ

    *sKdif;-usKH'dk; (u&def'def-rGefbmom? acsmifwdrf -Nrefrmbmom) a'oudk ,dk;',m;awGu usKdif;u&def (csif;u&def) Chiengkran vdkU odBuNyD; olwdkUe,faNrvdkU owfrSwfxm;Buygw,f/ usKdif; (csif;-Chieng) qdkwmu rdkif (ar)Mong vdkyJ NrdKU&Gme,fy,fawGudk ac:wmNzpfNyD; u&def(Kran)uawmU rGefbmomeJY acsmif;udk ac:wmudk ,dk;',m;rSKNyKxm;wmyg/ vG,fvG,fNyef&&if acsmif;NrdKU vdkUNyef&if &r,fxifygw,f/


    *sKdif;wdkufyGJ

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    'Da'oudk wyifa&TxD;&JUwyfawG odrf;vdkufw,fqdkwJY owif;Bum;wmeJY t,k'
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    ,dk;',m;wyfrsm;\ppfcsDvrf;aBumif;

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    acwfopfxdkif;yef;csDq&m\*sKdif;wdkufyGJyef;csDum;

    csKdif&mcsm[m *sKdif;udkodrf;NyD; pcef;csaewkef; uefzefzpfpm;udk trSKxrf;nHUw,f? ArmawGeJYvSKdU0SufqufqHw,f qdkwJYNypfcsufeJY ao'PftNypfay;ygowJY? ay:wl*DawGudkusawmU trSKxrf;aumif;w,f ppfa&;xl;cRefw,fqdkNyD; qkvmbfawGtrsm;BuD; csD;aNrSmufwJYtNyif t,k'
    ,rSm aNrae&may;NyD; ay:wl*DawGudk taNccsaexdkifapygw,f/ 'DvdkeJY ay:wl*DawG[m xdkif;edKifiHrSm yxrOD;qHk; uufovpfc&pf,mefbk&m;&Sdcdk;ausmif; San Petro Church udkaqmufvkyfudk;uG,fedKifcJYygowJY/

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    udk bmaBumifYta&;r,lovJ qdkwm awG;&cufBuD;yg/

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    Noble Contributor Wizard Cupid   mgtanta is on a distinguished road
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    Default

    atmufu udkrdkuefYydkYpfudk zwfNyD; usaemf wpfcgu rJaqmufudk tvnfa&mufaewkef; awGYcJhwmav; owd&rdygw,f/ usaemfhtm;enf;csufu ae&ma'oawGudk tifrwefarhvG,fw,f/ tJ'Dawmh rSwfrdoavmufyJ jyefa&;&awmhr,f/ usaemfhudk oli,fcsif;u rJaqmufjrdKUem;u bk&m;ESpfqlxifw,f/ vdkufydkYw,f/ wpfqlrSm jrefrmeJY xdkif; ppfyGJjzpfaeyHkudk eH&Haq;a&;yef;csD (usaemfhpdwfxifyg) eJY o&kyfazmfxm;ygw,f/yef;csDxJrSm ArmwyfawGu ykqdk;awGeJYAs/ vufeufuawmh "m;aygY/ cGefxdkif;awGu abmif;bDawGeJY/ oli,fcsif;u ,dk;',m;pmzwfjyD; bmomjyefjywmawmh xdkif;EdkifvdkufwJh wdkufyGJwpfyGJudk o&kyfazmfxm;wmaygY/ aemufjyD; tJ'D apwDrSm ewfvJ &Sdw,fAs/ olu ppfyGJrSm xdkif;bufu ulwdkufay;w,fqdkvm; tJ'Dvdk oli,fcsif;u ajymwm rSwfrdaew,f/ olYudk ylaZmfwJhtaeeJY ajAmuftdk;awG azmufwmvJ awGYcJh&w,f/ usaemf wpfcsufpOf;pm;rdwmu Armppfom;awGu ppfwdkufwJhae&mrSmvJ ykqdk;yJvm;As/ abmif;bDr0wfawmhbl;vm;/ yef;csDxJu Armppfom;awG ykqdk;av;awGeJY qdkwmawmh aoaocsmcsm rSwfrdaew,fAsm/ aus;Zl;yg/
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  10. #10
    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid   mokenlay is on a distinguished road mokenlay's Avatar
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    Default ,dk;',m;-Nrefrm ppfyGJrsm;

    5/

    *sKdif;ppfyGJtNyD; ,dk;',m; ESifY NrefrmwdkU\ edKifiHa&;taNcaersm;

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    ,bk&if csKdif&mcsm[m olYudk,folydk,HkBunfvmovdk olY&JU ay:wl*DaBu;pm;wyfawGudkvnf; ydktm;xm;vmw,f/ oludk,fwdkifu ay:wl*DawG&JU rmpuwfudk uRrf;uRrf;usifusif ypfwwfatmif avYusifw,f? olYwyfudkvnf; ay:wl*DawG&JU ppfa&;enf;ynmawGudk avYusifYapw,f? ,dk;',m;wyfudk acwfrSDNyD; tpGrf;xufatmif BudK;yrf;cJYygowJY/

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    tJ'DtcsdefrSm wyifa&TxD;[m olY&JUxD;eef;udk awmifiluae [Hom0wDudk tNyD;tydkifaNymif;a&TYNyD; pdk;pHaeygNyD/ rkw
    rudkodrf;NyD;wJYESpf rdk;tukefrSm &nf&G,fxm;wJYtwdkif; wyifa&TxD;[m aNrmufbufqefNyD; Nynfudkwdkufygw,f/ tJ'Dwkef;u NynfrSmbk&ifvkyfaewJY rif;acgifuvnf; olY&JUr[mrdwf tif;0OD;aqmifwJY &Srf;awGeJY taemufbufu &cdkifwyfawGudk tulnDawmif;wmaygY/

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