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Thread: [mm]w&kwfjynfolY vGwfajrmufa&; wyfrawmf taMumif; odaumif;p&m[/mm]

  1. #1
    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid Buzy Buzy Buzy   MrYoDa is on a distinguished road MrYoDa's Avatar
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    Default w&kwfjynfolY vGwfajrmufa&; wyfrawmf taMumif; odaumif;p&m

    w&kwfjynfolY wyfrawmf taMumif; ajym&rnfqdkvSsif w&kwf uGefjrLepfyg wDtaMumif; ESifh pum;OD;oef;&rSmyg/ w&kwfuGefjrLepf ygwD taMumif; ajymvSsif ulrifwefygwDESifh &SKyfaxG; &ufpuf vGef;vSaom tmPm vkyGJ rsm;udk tenf;tusOf;awmh odrSomvQif olY ordkif;eJY &yfwnfrI udk em;vnfEdkifygvdrfhrnf/

    yk&D
    a'gufwm qGef,ufqif

    w&kwfjynfukd refcsL; e,fom;awG odrf;ydkuf tkyfcsKyf NyD; wnfaxmifcJhwJh csif rif;quf[m aemufqHk; {u&mZf yk&D vufxufrSm MoZm ysufqD;cJh avonf/ yk&D [m 2 ESpfom; t&G,feJY wif bk&if jzpfcJhNyD; &ifcGifydkuf b0 eJY OD;&D;awmf eJY eef;wGif;u trwfawGu om tkyfcsKyf cJh ygonf/ vlrSef; rodwJh bk&ifi,fav; vufxufrSm t&m&m tm;enf;cJhNyD; tm;enf;,dk,Gif;NyD; a'gufwm qGef,ufqifvdk w&kwftrsdK;om; rsdK;cspfawG eJY ppfbk&ifawG [m refcsL; tmPmudk jzdKzsufNyD; orw EdkifiH xl axmifzkdY BudK;pm;vmMuygw,f/ ynmwwf vli,fawGMum; EdkifiHa&; tjrif us,fjyefYvmNyD; tif tm;BuD; xGm;vmwJh twGuf aemuf qHk; refcsL; bk&if[m &kyfjyoufoufom jzpfoGm;ygawmh onf/

    refcsL; rif;quf \tkyfpdk;rI udk vTrf;rdk; z,f&Sm;NyD; w&kwf orwEdkifiH (
    Republic of China) udk wnfaxmif&ef cJhMucsdef rSm wpfcsdefu refcsL; csifrif;quf&JY ppfAdkvfcsKyf (ppfbk&if) wpfOD;jzpfcJh ol ,Gef&Sdcdkif [m orw jzpfvmonf/ ya'o&mZf &dk;pGJ &SdwJh ,Gef&SDcdkif [m orw jzpfvm &wmudk tm;r&bJ zGJYpnf;yHk tajccHOya' udk jyifqifNyD; olYudk,fol tmPm&Sif tjzpf tkyfcsKyf&ef BuDK;pm;vm ygawmhw,f/ 1912 rSm a'guf wm qGef,ufqif \ &Jabmf&Jbuf wpfOD;jzpfol aqmif;usdK;&ef onf trsdK;om;ygwD udk pwif wnfaxmifcJh ygonf/

    ,Gef&SDcdkif
    aqmifusdK;&ef

    aemifwGif ulrifwef
    (KMT) [k xif&Sm;vmrnfh xdkygwDonf qGef,ufqif\ wkefref;a0SY toif; tygt0if w&kwfjynf twGif; trnftrsdK;rsdK; ESifh tpkpkjzpfaeaom EdkifiHa&; tkyfpkrsm;\ pkpnf;&mjzpfvm cJhonf/ 1913 a&G;aumufyGJwGif ulrifwefonf tjywftowf tEdkif&cJhNyD; ,Gef&SD cdkif\ tPmwnfjrJrI udk udkifvSKyf avawmhonf/ aqmif onf ygvDreftwGif; ,Gef&Sdckdifudk qefYusifbuf jyKonfh vSKyf&Sm;rI rsm;udk tifwkduf tm;wdkuf vkyfudkifcJhonf/ xdktcg tmPm pdwfrTefaeonfh ,Gef&SDcdkifonf aqmifusdK;&ef udk vkyfBuH owfjzwf vkdufonf/ wpfqufwnf;yif tjcm;aom awmfvSefa&; acgif;aqmifrsm;udk ygvkyfBuH owfjzwf &ef MuH pnfavonf/

    aqmif aoqHk;jcif;jzifh w&kwf ya'o&mZf awmfvSefa&; onf NyD;qHk;oGm;ouJh odkY jzpfoGm;NyD; a'gufwm qGef,ufqif onfvnf; *syef odkY xGufajy; &avonf/ 1913 wGif aEG&moDwGif awmifydkif; jynfe,f 7 ckonf ,Gef&SDcdkiftm; pwif ykefuefavawmhonf/ ,Gef&SDcdkifonf ulrifwef ygwDudk zsufodrf;&ef trdefYxkwfNyD; ygvDref twGif;rS z,f&Sm;um ygvDrefudk &yfqdkif; xm;cJhonf/ a&G;aumuf wifajrSmufonfh tpdk;& pHepfudk zsufodrf;NyD; ya'o&mZf pHepfudk toufoGif;&ef jyef BudK;pm;aeaom ,Gef&SDcdkifonf 1916 ZGefvwGif a&m*g b, ESdyfqufrIjzifh ewf&Gm pHoGm; avawmhonf/
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  2. #2
    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid Buzy Buzy Buzy   MrYoDa is on a distinguished road MrYoDa's Avatar
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    Default ar(4) ta&;awmfyHk

    ,Gef&SDcdkif aoonfESifh te,fte,f wGif tiftm;BuD; aeaom ppfbk&ifrsm;onf ayusif; tpdk;& tzGJYwGif BuD;pdk;vmMuonf/ w&kwfjyonfonf tpdwfpdwftrTmrTm yHkpHjzpfoGm;NyD; qdkif&m e,fy,f &Sd ppfwdkif;rI;rsm; u udk,fpD tkyfcsKyf aeMuonf/ orw EdkifiH rus ya'o&mZf EdkifiHrus tlaMumifusm; tpdk;& jzpfoGm; avonf/

    1914 yxrurmppf NyD;aom tcg &Sefa'gif; jynfe,fonf *syef vufatmifodkY a&mufoGm;onf/ udk&D;,m; ESifh e,fedrdwf xdpyfaeaom refcsL;&D;,m; awmifydkif;ESifh twGif;rGef*dk ,m; wdkY wGif *syef BuD;pdk;rI udk vufcHcJh &onf/ 1917 wGif w&kwfonf *smrPD udk ppfaMujim jyjcif;jzifh *syefESifh r[m rdwfjyKNyD; xdkjynfe,f rsm;udk jyef&vdk &jim;BudK;pm;cJh aomfvnf; ratmifjrifcJh/ 1918 wGif *syefESifh vSsdKY 0SufpmcsKyf csKyfNyD;&Sefa'gif; udk *syefydkif tjzpf todtrSwfjyKvdkuf &onf udk taMumif;jyKNyD; arv (4) &ufaeYwGif wGif ausmif;om;rsm; OD;aqmifonf qEjyyGJrsm; tBuD;tus,f ay: aygufcJhavonf/


    ar (4) ta&;awmfyHk twGif; ausmif;om; vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;

    ar(4) ta&;awmfyHk (
    May Fourth Uprising) [k ordkif;rSwfwdkif wGifcJhaom *syef ESifh tnHhcH w&kwf ppfbk&if tpdk;&udk qefY usif onfh ta&;tcif;onf w&kwf wdkY tMum; trsdK; om; a&;pdwf"gwfudk jyefvnf EId;qG EkdifcJhonf/ xdk ar 4 ta&;awmfyHk onf 1917 rS 1923 txd MumjrifhcJhaom rsdK;cspf ynmwwf ausmif;om;vli,frsm; \ ,Ofaus;rIopf vSKyf&Sm;rI (New Cultural Movemen) \ tiftm; tjrifh qHk; jzpfcJhavonf/

    xdkumv twGif; EdkifiH&yfjcm;wGif ynmoifNyD; ajrmufNyD; jyefvmMuaom w&kwfausmif;om;rsm; ESifh twl qdk&S,fvpf? Edkif iHa&; tawG;tjrifrsm; ESifh twl qdk&S,fvpf pHepfjzifh taemufwdkif;rSD w&kwfEdkifiH wnfaxmifa&; (
    Westernization of China) tawG;tjrifrsm; us,fjyefY vmonf/ xdktawG; tjrifrsm;onf aemifwGif ay: aygufvmrnfh w&kwfuGefjrL epfygwD\ a&aomufjrpf jzpfvmavonf/ ar 4 ta&;awmfyHk umvwGif wufjuGonfh vIyf&Sm;ol jzpfonfh armfpDwkef; onf ( yDuif; wuodkvf pmMunfhwdkufrI; tjzpf aqmif&Guf aecJhonf/ ) aemifwGif uGefjrLepfygwD acgif;aqmif wpfa,muf jzpfvmcJhavonf/

    csefau&Sdwf

    1919 wGif waMumhjyef ya'o&mZf awmfvSefa&; jyefvnf pwifNyD; a'gufwm qGef,ufqifonf uGrf;&SD; jynfe,f wGifpifNyDKif tpdk;&\ ppfOD;pD;csKyf jzpfvmonf/ ulrifwefudk jyefvnf pkpnf;NyD; yDuif; ppfbk&if tpdk;&udk tHwk avawmhonf/ ppfbk&ifrsm; \ A[dk tkyfpdk;rIudk z,f&Sm; Edkifaomfvnf; ajrmufydkif;wGif ajcukyf ,lxm;onfh ppfbk&ifrsm; usef&Sd aeao; ojzifh w&kwfjynf onf awmifydkif;ESifh ajrmufydkif; uGJoGm;onf/ 1921 wGif qGef,ufqif awmifydkif; wGif orw EdkifiHudk jyefvnf wnfaxmif onf/

    awmifydkif;\ orw jzpfvmonfY qGef,uf qifonf 1925 rwfv uifqm a&m*gjzifh ol uG,fvGefcsdef txd ajrmufydkif;ESifh aygif;pnf; Edkifa&;udk tpGrf;ukef BudK;pm; cJh&Smonf/ qGef,ufqif uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf csefau&Sdwf onf w&kwfawmfvSefa&; wyfrawmf\ ppfOD;pD;csKyf jzpfvmNyD; refcsL; acwf vufusef ppfbk&ifrsm; udk tjyif;txef ESdrfeif; avawmhonf/ 9 vtwGif; w&kwf EdkifiH wpf0uf ausmfudk jyefvnf pkpnf;EdkifcJh onf/ odkYaomfvnf; 1926 wGif ulrifwef ygwDwGif; vuf0J vuf,m uGJjym;rI jzpfcJhNyD; uGefjrLepfwdkY tiftm; BuD;vm avawmhonf/
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  3. #3
    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid Buzy Buzy Buzy   MrYoDa is on a distinguished road MrYoDa's Avatar
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    Default

    w&kwfuGefjrLepf ygwDudk 1921 wGif vDwcsdK ESifh csefwkpl; wdkY u pwif wnfaxmif cJhMuonf/ qGef,ufqif\ OD;aqmifrIjzifh ulrifwefESifh uGefjrLepfwdkY udk r[mrdwftjzpf aygif;pnf;NyD; w&kwfjynf wpf0Srf; BuD;pkd;aeaom ppfbk&ifrsm;udk tHwk ESdrfeif; EdkifcJhonf/ odkYaomf r[mrdwf tzGJY ESpfcktMum; awG;ac: ydkif; qdkif&m jyoemrSm rI MuD;xGm; onfxuf BuD;xGm; vmcJhonf/ qGef,ufqif uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf ulrifwefwdkY onf ydkrdktiftm; BuD;xGm; vmNyD; uGefjrLepfwdkYudk awmfvSefa&; r[mrdwf tjzpfrS xkwfy,fum ESdrfeif;cJhonf /

    vDwcsdK csefwkpl;

    odkYESifh w&kwfuGefjrL epfygwDonf ajratmuf tzGJYtpnf; wpfck jzpfoGm;avonf/ 1926 -27 ulrifwef wkdY\ ESdrfeif;rI aMumifh tiftm;csnfh eJhoGm;aom ygwDudk armfpDwkef; ESifh csLtifvdkif;wdkY ESpf OD; rS jyefvnf pkpnf;um wnfaxmifcJhonf / armfwdkYonf wyfrI; wpfOD;jzpfol csLaw; ESifh aygif;pnf;rdNyD; w&kwfjynf awmifydkif; &Sd [leefESifh uGrf;&SD; e,fpyf rS tpjyKum uGefjrLepf tpdk;&i,f wpfckudk pwif wnfaxmifcJhonf/ ulrifwef wdkYudk &ifqdkif&efESifh uljrLepfEdkifiH wpfck wnfaxmif Ekdif&ef twGuf ppftiftm; wpfck r&Sdrjzpf vdktyfonf qdkonfudk oabm aygufcJhonfh uGefjrLepfwdkYonf v,form; vlwef; pm;udk tajccHum tiftm;udk wnfaxmifcJhNyD; xdkv,form;rsm;udk ajymufusm; ppfom;rsm; tjzpfavhusifh ay;cJhavonf/

    armfpDwHk; rm&S,f csLaw;

    1928 wGif v,form;ESifh tvkyform; ajymufusm; tiftm;pk wdkYudk aygif;pnf; vdkufonfh tcg tiftm; 10000 cefY &Sdonfh wyfeDawmf [k ac: onfh wyfrawmf wpfck jzpfvm avawmhonf/ armf onf EdkifiHa&; acgif;aqmif tjzpf aqmif&Guf cJhNyD; csLaw; onf ppfacgif; aqmiftjzpf wm0ef,lcJhonf/ xdkY aMumifh csLaw;onf w&kwf wyfeDawmf? w&kwf jynfolY vGwfajrmufa&; wyfrawmf\ zcifBuD; tjzpf owfrSwfcH cJh &onf/

    1931 wGif 0lusefESifh uGrf;&SD; jynfe,fESpf ck yg0ifaom w&kwf qdkAD,uf orw tpdk;& (
    Chinese Soviet Republic) udk wnfaxmifavonf/ (qdkAD,uf qdkwm tvkyform; tzGJYtpnf;rsm; udk &nfnTef;onf...) / csefau&Sdwf OD;aqmifonfh ulrifwef tpdk;&onf uGefjrLepf tpdk;&udk tjyif;txef ESdrfeif; avonf/ ajrmufydkif;rS tiftm;jzifh NydKqif;vm aomuGefrifwef wyfrsm;&efrS vGwfajrmuf&ef uGefjrLepfwdkY BuHpnf &awmhonf/



    1934 atmufwdkbmwGif ygwD acgif;aqmifrsm;? wyfeD ESifh uGefjrLepf axmufcHol tiftm; wpfodef; ausmfonf csefau&Sdwf wyfrsm;\ xdk;ppfrS vGwfuif;Edkif&ef twGuf uGrf;&SD; jynfenfe,fudk pGefYcGmNyD; w&kwfjynf taemuf awmifydkif;ESifh taemufajrmufydkif; a'orsm; udk 0dkif;ywfum csdefau&Sdwf wyfrsm;udk a&Smif&Sm;vsuf ajrmufydkif; &Sef&SD; jynfe,ftxd &Snfvsm;pGm csDwuf qkwfcGmcJh&onf/ armf? csLaw;? csLtifvdkif;? wdefY a&Smifzdef vDusifherf ponfh uGefjrLepf acgif;aqmif rsm;ESifh wyfeD wyfrI;rsm; OD;aqmifonfh xdk 0dkufywf qkwfcGmrI BuD;onf c&D;&Snf csDwufyGJ
    (logn march) [k ordkif;wGifcJhonf/

    c&D;&Snf csDwufyGJ vrf;aMumif;
    users.erols.com/mwhite28/longmarc.htm

    uDvdkrDwm 12500 ausmf? jynfe,f 11 ck? awmifwef; aygif; 18 ckudk jrpf 24 pif; udkjzwfausmf cJhaom 1 ESpfausmf MumjrifhcJhonfh xdkAsL [m ajrmuf qkwfcGmrI aMumifh w&kwf uGefjrLepf ygwDonf tESdrfeif;cH&rnfh ab;rS vGwfajrmufcJhNyD; &SD,Grf jynfe,f
    &eftef wGif ygwD XmecsKyfudk zGJYpnf;u tiftm;jyefvnf wnfaxmif cJhonf/ csLaw;onf aemifwGif w&kwf jynfolY vGwfajrmufa&; wyfrawmf (People's Liberation Army) \ ppfOD;pD;csKyf jzpfvmcJhonf/

    csLtifvdkif; jrefrm EdkifiH c&D;pOfrS
    or
    wBuD; a'gufwm bOD;? OD;Ek ESifh csLtifvdkif;

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  4. #4
    Noble Contributor Senior Cupid   Aung Aung Oo is on a distinguished road
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    Default

    w&kwfppfwyf[m w&kwfuGefjrLepf ygwD&JY aemufcH trmcH tiftm;tjzpf awmufavsmuf &SdcJhygw,f/ ppft&m&SdawG[mvnf; uGefjrLepf ygwDrSm tqifhqifhaom wm0efawGudk ,lxm;Muygw,f/ 'gayrJh ppft&m&SdawGu ygwDudk csKyfudkifwJh tqifhudk wpfcgrS ra&mufcJhygbl;/ w&kwfppfwyfudk pwifxlaxmifcJhwJh acgif;aqmifawGtm;vHk;uvnf; ygwDudk ppfwyfxuf OD;pm;ay;cJhMuygw,f/ ygwDxJrSm om tiftm;pk tiftm;jydKifjyD; ppfwyfudk aemufcHjyKjyD; tmPm&&Sda&;udk rusdK;pm;cJhbl;vdk rSwfrdygw,f/
    'gaMumifh vlawGu uGefjrLepf ygwDomvsif w&kwfjynfwGif; jzpfysuforSs&J wm0ef&Sdolvdk jrifMu owfrSwfMuwmyg/ 'gaMumifh wD,efrif ta&; tcif;rSm w&kwfppfwyfu tiftm;oHk; jzdKcGJcJhayrJh uGefjrLepf ygwDudkom vlrkef;rsm;jyD; ppfwyfudk w&m;cH tjzpf w&kwfjynfolawGu rowfrSwfcJhMuyg/
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  5. toHk;0ifvSaom pmydk'ftwGuf azmfjyyg rdwfaqG 3 OD;rS aus;Zl;wif&SdMuygonf


  6. #5
    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid Buzy Buzy Buzy   MrYoDa is on a distinguished road MrYoDa's Avatar
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    Default avsmifuD; a&wyf

    tdrfem;u avsmifuD; wdk huawmh ol ha&wyfudk tiftm;wdk;csJ haew,fwJh / udk,fydkif av,mOfwif oabFmawGudk aqmufzdk hBuHpnfaeygw,fwJh / avmavmq,f vljrifuGif;xJ xGufaewmuawmh &k&Svkyf av,mOfwif oabFm tcGH udk 0,fvmjyD; 'gvif; oabFmusif;rSm jyef upgrade vkyfaewmyg/ tifwmeufxJ &SmMunfh&if tJh'd oabFmyHkawG awG h&ygvdrfhr,f/ aemuf w&kwfa&wyf rSmwif av,mOfrsdK;pHk (wdkufav,mOf? AHk;usJav,mOf? axmufydk hav,mOf) 2300 ausmf&Sdw,fwJh / onftxJu rS 700 ausmf[m xdkif0rfudk tcsdefra&G; xwdkufEdkifatmif jyifqif xm;ygw,fwJh/


    wpfjydKifeufwnf;rSmyJ w&kwfBuD;[m oabFmzsuf'Hk;udk tBuD;tus,f okawoevkyf prf;oyfaeygw,f / w&kwf[m ol h&J h 'Hk;vufeuf tpDtpOfawG udk 1970 avmufuwnf;u pcJhMuwmyg / 1980 0ef;usifrSm tmumoxJ j*dK[fwk awG vTwfwifEdkifayr,fh w&kwfppfwyf[m t&nftaoG; nHh zsif;jyD; acwfaemufuswJh vufeuf ,E,m; awGudk oHk;qJyJ qdkwmudk us,fus,fjyef hjyef hoHk;oyfxm;wJh aqmif;yg; wpfyk'f zwfzl;w,f / 1989 avmufu qdkawmh tJh'd tcsdeftxd w&kwf ppfwyfrSm qdkAD,uf ( ,ck &k&S ) u ae ay;xm;wJh enf;ynm aemufus aewJh wifhum;eJ htajrmuf awGudk xkwfvkyf wyfqif xm; wmyJ &Sdygw,fwJh / avaMumif; umuG,fa&;rSm qdkAD,ufvkyf SAM awGeJ h jynfwGif;rSm jyefxkwfxm;wJh puftajrmuf awGavmufyJ wyfqif xm;Ekdifygw,fwJh / olu qdkAD,uf &J h'kwd,urm ppfaESmif; vufeufawGudk yHkpH b,favmufqdkjyD; mass production jyefxkwfw,f/ rQm;eD (Red Arrow ) vdk wifhum;zsuf vufeuf uav;awG xkwfEdkifw,f/

    oHcsyfum eJ h,E
    ,m; wyfawG[m vJ taemuf tkyfpk eJ h,SOf&if av;auG; acwfaemufus usefaew,f qdkwmrsdK; oHk;oyfjyxm;w,f/ acwfaemufus& jcif;[m vJ armfpDwHk; &J hjynfol h ppfr[m AsL[m tawG; tac: eJ ht,ltqaMumifh vdk vJ qdkygw,f/ ol hAsL [mu w&kwf jynf&J hrsm;jym;vSwJh vlOD;a&udk tajccHygw,f/ jynfy&efolu 0ifwdkufvm&if &efol udk ukef;wGif;ydkif; txd a&mufatmif rQm; ac: oGm;r,f/ ppfOD;uRH jyD; vrf;aMumif; &SnfvmwJh tcgusrS axmufydk hvrf;aMumif; awGudk jzwfwkdufr,f / &efoludk vltiftm;eJ hoHk;jyD; acsrIH; jypfr,f qdkwJh AsL[mygyJ/ armfpDwHk; [m *syef eJ hcsefau&Sdwfudk onfenf;AsL[m eJ hatmifjrifcJhw,f wmudk; / 'gayr,fh vlawGudk tpkvdkuftjyH kvdkufaoapEdkifwJh tPkjrL vufeuf eJ hwdk;wufvmwJh ppfa&; enf;ynmawG udk olxnfhrwGuf EdkifcJh ygbl;/ onfawmh w&kwfBuD;&J h ppfpGrf;tm; [m 1980 jynfhvGef awGrSm wu,fyJ acwfaemufus aecJh jyDvm;/

    1965 rSm 0efBuD;csKyf csKtifvdkif;[m trSwf4 tmumo tu,f'rDudk avmifqmcJ oHk; 'Hk;vufeuf tpDtpOfudk pwifapcJh ygw,f/ (ppfvufeufawGu tcJudkoHk;Muw,f) tJh'd tpDtpOf t& yxrqHk; a'gifzef; 61 &J h bvl;y&ifh xGufay: vmygw,fwJh/ 'gayr,fh 1970 jynfhvGef rSmawmh tpDtpOfajymif;oGm;ygw,f/ olwdk hu tPkjrL pGrf;tifoHk; a&ikyf oabFm aqmufzdk hudk ydk tm;oefcJh jyD; tJh'd oabFmay: uae jypfEdkifwJh 'Hk;vufeuf xkwfvkyfa&;bufudk OD;wnfoGm;w,f/ 'geJ hyJ
    ya&m*suf[m trSwf1 tmumo tu,f'rD udkvTJay;vdkuf jyD; usLvif 1 (JL 1) ya&m*sufay: vm jyD a'gifzef; 61 DF61 yHkpHu bD&dkxJ a&mufoGm; ygawmhw,f/ w&kwfBuD;[m tJh'd tcsdef uwnf;u tPkjrL enf;ynmeJ hvufeufudk ydkifqkdifjyD;ygjyD/

    1975 rSmawmh usLvif 1
    udk a'gifzef; 21 &,f vdk h trnfajymif;jyD; a&ikwfoabFm uwifru ukef;ay: uyg jypfEdkifatmif vkyfzdk hwdk;csJ hMuygw,f/ 'geJ hyJ ol hudk wifypfEdkifr,fh armfawmf,mOfudkyg wnfaqmufcJh &wmaygh/ aemuf 10 ESpftMum 1985 rSmawmh yxrqHk; a'gifzef;21 udk prf;oyfypfvTwfEdkifcJh ygw,fwJh / uDvdk 1700 ausmftxd vSrf;ypfEdkifjyD; uDvdk 600 av;wJh xdyfzl;udk o,foGm; Edkifygw,fwJh/ wdkufcsif;ypf 'Hk;ysH awG tqifhrSm wmwdkypf 'Hk;ysH aygh/ aemufydkif; a'gifzef; 21 at qdkjyD; tqifh jrSifhvdkufwm tuGmta0; uDvdk ESpfaxmifh ckepf&m ausmf avmuftxd wdk;csJ h Edkifygw,f/ tJh'd'Hk;ysH[m MRBM (medium-range ballistic missile ) wmvwfypf wdkufcsif;ypf 'Hk;ysH twef;0if jzpfoGm; w,faygh/ w&kwfBuD;[m 'D'Hk;vufeufawG eJ htwl ol h& Jh wyfudkyg jyifqifzGJ pnf;cJhygw,f/ 'Duae hol hqDrSm a'gifzef;21 - 21at awG wyfqif xm;wJh wyf&if 7 &if;txd &SdaeygjyD/ 'Hk;ys HawGudk e,fpyf wpfavsmuf jzef husuf csxm;EdkifygjyDwJh /


    2006 rSm a'gifzef; 21-pDudk pwif toHk;jyK ygw,f/ 'D'Hk;ysHu uDvdk 2000 txd o,fEdkifjyD; ypfrSwf vrf;nTefpHepfudk ygwyfqif xm;ygw,fwJh / ydkwdusvmw,faygh/ ol h udk o,faqmif &mrSmvJ t&if armf',fawGwkef;u oHk;wJh x&yfum; tpm; 10bD;armif; 'Hk;o,f,Of awG ay: rSm wyfqifvdkufw,f/ tusdK;&vm'fuawmh vrf;r&SdvJ a&G hvsm; ae&m,l ypfcwfEdkifpGrf; &SdoGm;ygw,f/


    vwfwavmrSm w&kwfawG[m a'gifzef; 21- 'D qdkwJh
    ASBM ( anti-ship ballistic missile ) oabFmzsuf'Hk; udk xkwfvkyfzdk hwmqlaeygjyD/ tJh'd 'Hk;ysH [m urmh tjrefqHk; 'Hk;vufeuf jzpfvm p&m &Sdygw,f/ tar&duef awGuawmh vHkjcH kpdwfcs&wJh ukef;ajruae ae&m,ljyD; olwdk h&J h av,mOfwifoabFmBuD;awGudk zsufqD;ypfEdkifp&m &Sdw,fvdk hoHk;oyfygw,fwJh / avmavmq,f tdwfZdk;aq; wdk h[myGef; wdk hqdkwJh or&dk;us oabFmzsuf'Hk;ys H awG &Sdygw,f/ tJh'gawGu ypfvdkuf&if a&jyifuae &SyfysH vmjyD; oabFm awGudk zsufwJh 'Hk;ysH rsdK;yg/ jyD;awmh range tm;jzihf enf;ygw,f/ tJh'd 'Hk;ysH rsdK;udk tar&duef oabFmawGu aumif;aumif; umuG,fEdkif ygw,f/ oabFmBuD;awGab;rSm *ufwvif; pufaoewf wyfxm;wJh puf&kyf tajrmufpif awGu a&'g pHepfudk oHk; tm&HkcHjyD; uyfvmorQ udk ypfcs zsufqD; ypfEdkifwmudk; /

    'gayr,fh a'gifzef;awGu a&ay: &SyfjyefvmrSm r[kwfbJ ta0;BuD;uae vSrf;ypfvdkufjyD; aumif;uifu ae xdk;qif;vmrSm&,f? jrefEIH; jrifhvGef;wJh twGuf 'Hk;zsuf'Hk;awG rxda&mufawmh wm&,f aMumifh tar&duefawG twGuf pdk;&drfp&mjzpfaewmyg/ oabFmzsufEdkifwJh xdyfzl;avmufudk o,faqmifxm;&if tJh'd 'Hk;ysHawG[m uDvdk oHk;axmifausmftxd c&D;aygufEdkif w,fvdk hrSef;Muygw,f/ avmavmq,f 'D'Hk;ysH awG wdkufyGJ 0iftaetxm;jzpfzdk hawmh aemuf 3-4 ESpfavmuf MumEdkif ygao;w,f/ b,fvdkyJ ajymajym tem*wfrSm oabFmzsuf wmvwfypf tqifh 'Hk;ysH awG &,f av,mOfwif oabFmBuD;awG&,f wJh vufeufawGeJ hw&kwfjynfBuD;[m usm; tawmifyHaygufovdk jzpfvmzdk hrsm;w,f.. / xdkif0rfawmh roufombl; /



    ol h&J h'Hk;ysH tpDtpOfu txaES;cJhoavmuf aemufydkif; armf',fawGudk
    upgrade vkyfwm? yHkpHajymif; modify vkyfwmawGrSm awmfawmf jrefvmw,f / enf;ynm &oGm;wm&,f acwfeJ htrSDvdkufEdkifwm &,fvJ ygoGm;wmaygh/ 'gayr,fh 'dya&m*suf awGtwGufawmh ukefvdkufwJh ydkufqHuvJ aomufaomufvJygyJwJh... /

    udk;um;...
    tJh[m taMumif;vdkufzwfxm; aom 0ufbfqdk'frsm; eJh ppfynm*sme,frsm; ...

    r[kwfrcH-cGef;wHk hjyefaomf-rSefaomfvnf;&SH;-vlvnf;rkef;\/
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  7. #6
    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid Buzy Buzy Buzy   MrYoDa is on a distinguished road MrYoDa's Avatar
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    Default w&kwfvufeuf xkyfvkyfrI

    w&kwf[m ppfoHk;pm;&dwf twGuf ESpfpOf 84 bDvsH ausmfudk oHk;w,fvdk h0DuD t&od&ygw,f / tJh'dyrmP[m tqifh 2 ae&mrSm &SdjyD; urmh pkpkaygif;ppfoHk;pm;&dwf &J h 5 % ausmf &Sdygw,fwJh/ (tar&duefu bDvsH 600 ausmfoHk;jyD; 40% ausmf &Sdygw,f) / vufeuf wifydk h a&mif;csrI rSmawmh tqifh 7 ae&mrSm &SdjyD; jyD;cJhwJh ESpfrSm a':vm oef; 800 ausmfzdk ;wifydk ha&mif;cscJhygw,f/ 'g[m 10 pkESpfwpfck twGif; av;qausmf wufvmwmygyJ/ (tar&duef jynfaxmifpku 6.7 bDvsH zdk ;wifydk ha&mif;csygw,f)/ onfhtjyif ol[m jynfyuae acwfrDvufeufawG jyef0,f,lygao;w,f/ 'DESpf 2009 twGif;rSm ol[m oef;aygif; 600 eD;yg; zdk; vufeuf 0,f,lcJhygw,fwJh/ 'gayr,fhtJh'd yrmP[m vGefcJhwJh 10 ESpf 2000 u 0,f,lcJhwJh 2 bDvsH zdk;eJ h,SOf&if trsm;BuD; enf;oGm;ygw,f/ enf;yg;oGm;&wJh taMumif; t&if;rSm ol hEdkifiHtwGif;rSm udk,fwdkif vufeuf xkwfvkyfEdkifpGrf; wdk;wufvmwJh jy,k*f wpfck vdk hoHk;oyfEdkifygw,f/

    w&kwfjynfol hwyfrawmf[m 'kwd, urmppf twGif; *syefudk wdkufcdkuf cJh&muae oHcsyfum,Ofrsm;? wifhum;rsm;? tajrmufrsm;? pufaoewfBuD;rsm; yg0ifwJh ppfvufusef ypnf; trsm;tjym;udk odrf;ydkuf EdkifcJh ygw,f/ onf vufusef ypnf;awGudk toHk;jyK jyD; ajcvsifwyfom &SdcJhwJh wyfeDudk wifhum;eJ h ,E,m;wyfawG vufeufBuD; wyfawG tjzpfwdk;csJ hzGJ hpnf;cJh ygw,fwJh /

    uGefjrLepfawG tmPm &jyD; aemufydkif;rSm r[mrdwfcsif; axmufyHhrI tpDtpOfawG eJ h qdkAD,ufawG qDu wD 55 wifhum;vdk wifh um;awG udkom ru onfvufeuf awGudk xkwfvkyf wJh enf;ynmeJ hpufawGudk &,lcJhygw,f/ 'gayr,fh uGefjrLepfcsif; twGif;&efaqmifaeMuwJh qdkAD,uf[m w&kwfudk acwfrDenf;ynm awG ray;cJhygbl;/ olay;cJhorQ [m 'kwd, urmppfvufusef ppfypnf;awGeJ henf;ynm awGcsnf; jzpfygw,fwJh/ onfhaemufydkif; qdkAD,ufawGeJ hrl0g'a&;&m &efbuf awGjzpfvmcJh jyD; 1960 rSm qdkAD,ufawGbufu tultnDawGeJ htBuHay;awGudk &kwfodrf;cJhygw,f/

    w&kwfawG[m onfvufeufawGudk avhvmjyD; yHkpHwl,l xkwfcJhygw,f/ 'ghaMumifh vJ w&kwfvkyfvufeufawG [m aoewftp wifhum;tqHk; yHkpH (
    Type) b,favmuf qkdjyD; xkwfvmwmygyJ/ (uRefawmfwdk hjrefrmjynfu 0,foHk;wJh F7 awG[m qdkADvufvkyf rpf21 awGudk uvHk;xm;wmygyJ/ 'Dav,mOfawGu AD,uferf ppfumvwkef;u acwftrDqHk; pm&if;xJ rSmygygw,f/ ) onfhtjyif armfpDwHk; eJ h AdkvfcsKyfvifaAsmif wdk h&J hjynfol hppf r[mAsL [m aMumifh or&dk;us vufeufawGudk acwfrD atmif xkwfvkyfzdk hodyfpdwf 0ifpm;cJh[ef r&Sdygbl; / onftusdK;quf[m 1979 rSm AD,uferfeJ hjzpfcJhwJh ppfyGJrSm vufawG hcHpm;&ygawmhw,f/ crmeDawGudk 0ifwdkufwJh AD,uferfudk zdtm;ay;zdk hAD,uferfajrmufydkif;udk w&kwfwyfawG 0ifwdkuf&mu jzpfvmwJh ppfyGJyg/ ppftiftm; ESpfodef;ausmf eJ hwifh um; 600 ausmf (yHkpH 63? 62 eJ h 59) oHk;jyD; AD,uferf ajrmufydkif;udk 0ifwdkufygw,f/

    AD,uferf awG[m tiftm; ckepfaomif;ausmf eJ hAD,uferfppfvufusef tar&duef vufeufawGudk oHk;jyD; ck hcHcJhyg w,fwJh/ tiftm;eJ hzdEdkifcJhayr,fh AD,uferfxJ 0ifvmwJh w&kwfwyfawG[m AD,uferf wifhum; tenf;tusOfudk wdkufzdk hwifhum;zsuf vufeuf aumif;awmif r&SdcJ hygbl;wJh / w&kwf ppfom; awG[m wifhum; csdef;BudK;eJ hbD;tMum; opfom;wHk;awG xdk;xnfhjyD; wifhum;udk &yfoGm;atmif taocHjyD; vkyfcJh Mu& ygw,fwJh/ ypfjyD;ruGJ wJh jynfwGif;jzpf vufypfAHk; 'PfuvJ rao;cJhygbl;/ pm&if; twdtus xGufrvm cJhayr,fh taemufEdkifiH awGuawmh w&kwfppfom; ESpfaomif; ajcmufaxmifausmf usjyD; wifhtm; 400 zsufqD; cH&w,fvdk hcef hrSef;Muygw,f/
    (AD,uferf;bufu tustqHk; ydkrsm;ayr,fh) 'g[m tar&duef vdk wwd, EdkifiHBuD;eJh ,SOf&wJh ppfyGJrsdK;r[kwfbJ rdrd xuf tiftm;enf;wJh EdkifiHwpfck eJ h,SOfwdkuf&wJh ppfyGJwpfck&J h&vm'f jzpfaeygw,f/

    Type 92 wifhum;rsm;

    1970 aESmif;ydkif; armf0g'DawG tiftm;usqif;jyD; acwftawG;tac: &SdwJh acgif;aqmifawG wufvmtcsdef rSmawmh w&kwfawG [m taemuf&J henf;ynmudk vdkufEdkifzdk htm&Hk pdkufcJhygw,f/ tar&duef jynfaxmifpk eJ htaemuf Oa&myEdkifiHawG txd ppfbufrpf&SifawG udkapvTwf avhvm apcJhygw,f/ jynfyuae wifydk h&wJh vufeuf awG&J henf;ynm tqifhtwef;udk wdk;jrSifh uef howf vdkufjyD; vufeuf vdktyfcsufudk jynfyEdkifiHawG tay: rSDcdkae&rIudk enf;enf;orQ enf;atmif avsmhcszdk hay:vpDawG cscJh ygw,f/ 1977 uae 87 txd umv tydkif;tjcm;[m acwfrD ppfwyfjzpfapzdk htwGuf jyKjyif ajymif;vJrIawG vkyfwJh umvawGvdk hajymvdk h&ygw,f/ 'gayr,fhvJ 1990 cef htxd w&kwf awG[m tDvufx&Gef;epf ppfqifa&;? vufeuf uGyfuJrI pHepfawG? ypfrSwf wdus apwJh yJxdef; pHepfawG eJ haxmufvSrf;a&; tydkif;rSm enf;ynm acwfrrD wmawG? t&nfaoG; nHhzsif;wmawG pwJh tm;enf;csuf awG &SdcJhygw,fwJh / ol h&J h enf;yg;wJh bwf*suf[mvJ t[ef h htwm;wpfck jzpfaecJh ygw,f/

    AD,uferfeJ hjzpfwJh ppfjyD; aemufydkif; 1987 rSm w&kwfjynf[m acwfrD vufeufrsm; xkwfvkyf zdk htpDtpOfrsm; a&;qGJ cJhygw,fw,f/ onf tpDtpOfrSm ppfoHk; yHhydk; ypnf; okawoe eJ hxkwfvkyfa&;? acwfrD enf;ynm oHk; vufeuf xkwfvkyfa&; eJ h enf;ynm okawoe qdkwJh u@ 3 ck yg0ifygw,f/ wwd, tkyfpkjzpfwJh enf;ynm yHhydk;rI [m 'kwd, jzpfwJh acwfrD vufeuf xkwfvkyfa&; twGuf vdktyfwJh okawoeeJh enf;ynmudk &SmazGay;zdk h yg/ w&kwf&J hvufeufxkwfvkyfrI toHk; pm;&dwf[m ppfoHk; pm;&dwf&J h 45% &SdcJhygw,f/ onftxJu 25% udk ppfav,OfawG xkwfvkyfzdk h? 15% udk Munf;wyf oHk; vufeufawG xkwfvkyfzdk heJ h? 10% udkawmh a&wyfeJ h 'Hk;vufeufawG xkwfvkyfzdk hoHk;cJh ygw,f/ w&kwf&J hppfvufeuf xkwfwJh pufrI ZHk[m urbmay: rSm wwd,ajrmuf tBuD;qHk; ppfoHk; vufeufxkwf pufrI ZHk jzpfjyD; usnfqH utp tEkjrLoHk; a&ikyf oabmF txd vufeuftrsdK; tpm;aygif; rsm;pGmudk xkwfvkyf Ekdifygw,f/ 'gayr,fh tapmydkif;rSm xkwfvkyf vdkufwJh vufeufawG[m t&nftaoG; nHHhzsif;jyD; toHk;rus ygbl;wJh/

    w&kwf&J h acwfrDvufeuf tpDtpOf &J hyxrtqifh[m 'dkif;xlatmif vkyfzdk hta&;yJ jzpfygw,f/ umuG,fa&; OD;pm;ay;jzpfwJh ajrjyifwyfawGtwGuf wifhum;zsuf vufeufawG? avaMumif;&ef umuG,fa&; pHepfawG? oHcsyfumcGif; usnfawG? &[wf,OfeJ haxmufydk h,E,m;awG? ypfrSwf wdusapwJh pHepfawG udk avhvm okawoe vkyfcJygw,f/ a&wyf rSmvJ oabmFzsuf'Hk; eJ ha&ikyfoabFm ppfqifa&; eJ htDvufx&Gef;epf enf;ynmawG tjyif avwyftwGuf tDvufx&Gef;epf ppfqifa&; eJ hvufeuf uGyfuJrI pHepfawG tydkif;udk ydkrdk tm&Hk pdkufcJh ygw,f/ xkwfvkyfa&; tiftm;pk tydkif;udk wjznf;jznf;csif; wdk;csJ zGJ hpnf;vm&m ckcsdefrSm ppfbuf xkwfvkyfa&; aumfykda&;&Sif;BuD; 11 ck txd &SdaejyD jzpfygw,f (uGefjrLepfqdkawmh tm;vHk; EdkifiHydkifawG aygh..)/ &vm'fu jrSm;eDvdk wifhum;zsufvufeuf eJ h a'gifzef; vdk wmvwfypf 'Hk;ysHawG? 155 rr tajrmufBuD;awG eJ h qdkAD,uf yHkpHwky tqifhjrSifhxm;wJh avaMumif; umuG,fa&; pHepfawG
    ay: xGufvmcJh wmygyJ/

    wHcg;zGifh0g' eJ htwl wdk;wufzGH hjzdK; vmwJh pD;yGm;a&;aMumifh "etiftm; awmifhwif;vmwJh w&kwfawG[m ppfvufeuf okawoe jyKrI eJ hxkwfvkyfrI tydkif;rSm vJ tawG htaBuHK eJ ht&Sdef aumif;aumif; &aeygjyD/ udk,fydkif yHkpH enf;ynmjrifh wdkufav,mOfudk xkwfvkyfEdkifzdk hbDvsH eJ hcsD tukefcHjyD; okawoe vkyfcJhygw,f/ 1980 txd 'kwd,urmppf usef wD 55 yHkpHa[mif; wifhum;awG ae&m rSm (&k&S wD99 vdk) yHkpH 99 eJ hyHkpH 97 vdk jynfwGif;jzpf acwfrD wifhum; awGudk tpm;xdk; vdkufygjyD/ tPkjrL xdyfzl; txd o,f EdkifwJh wmvwfypfeJ hwma0;jypf 'Hk;ysH awGudk yHkpHxkwf xkwfvkyf jzefhusuf xm;EkdifjyD jzpfygw,f/
    J11 vdk &k&Svkyf SU 27 udk wdk;csJ hrGrf;rH xm;jyD; oabFmzsuf vufeufawG udkOD;pm;ay; wyfqifxm;wJh wdkufav,OfawG udk vnf; ol ha&wyfrSm toHk;jyK aejyD jzpfygw,f/ 'gh tjyif J 10 vdk w&kwfudk,fydkif yHkpHxkwf Mum;jzwf wdkufav,mOfawG wGifwGif us,fus,f xkwfvkyf toHk;jyK EdkifaeygjyD/ J 14 vdk haumvm[mv owif;xGufaewJh rsdK;qufopf wdkufav,mOf udkvnf; okawoejyK aeMujyDvdk hrSef;aeMu& ygjyD/ oabmFzsuf wmvwfypf 'Hk;ysH rsdK;udk prf;oyfzdk hwmqlaeovdk 'Hk;cGif;'Hk; tpDtpOfudkvJ pOf;pm; aeMuygjyD/ 'gayr,fh transparency enf;yg;rI aMumifh ol xkwfvkyfwJh vufeufawG &J hpGrf;&nf twdtusudk cef hrSef;EdkifpGrf; r&SdMu ao;ygbl;/ rnfodk hyifjzpfap ppfa&; enf;ynm tydkif;rSm vnf; taemuf EdkifiHawGudk rDvk rDcifjzpfaejyDvdk hoHk;oyfwJh olawGu oHk;oyfaeMu ygw,f../ onfvdk 'dkif;xl atmif vkyfjyD;&ifawmh vSHxufatmif pGrf;aqmif&m tpDtpOf &SdygaMumif; ol h&J ha&yef; pm;aewJh av,mOfwif oabFm tpDtpOfawGu t&dyfta,mif jyaeovdk ygyJ.. /

    J 10
    tqifhjrSifh aeaom J10B


    tar&duef F16 ESifh J10B udk EIdif;,SOfxm;yHk( awmfawmfwkxm;wmyJ) (from a blog)
    SU27 udk rGrf;rHxm;aom J11

    pdwful;,Of J14
    r[kwfrcH-cGef;wHk hjyefaomf-rSefaomfvnf;&SH;-vlvnf;rkef;\/
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  8. #7
    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid Buzy Buzy Buzy   MrYoDa is on a distinguished road MrYoDa's Avatar
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    Default w&kwf avaMumif;umuG,fa&;

    'dkif;xl zdk hyxrtqifh t"du xm;cJhwJh w&kwf[m rsufarSmuf ppfyGJ awG&J h tc&muswJh avaMumif; pdk;rdk;rI &&Sda&; twGuf BudK;pm;vmwJh &efoludk b,fvdk umuG,frvJ/ qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpkBuD; jydKuGJcsdef 1991 ck ESpftxd w&kwf &J havaMumif; umuG,fa&;[m or&dk;us av,mOfypf puftajrmufawG eJ h qdkAD,ufqDu &,lcJhwJh S-75 eJ h SA-2 'Hk;ys HpHepf awG yJ &SdcJhygw,f/ trsm;odwJh qrf awGaygh../ qrf (SAM) qkdwm Surface to Air Missile &J htwdkaumufyg/

    usL; ausmfvmwJh &efol havwyfudk Mum;jzwfwdkufzdk htwGuf
    J7- J6 -J8 wdkufav,mOfawGyJ &SdcJhygw,f/ 'Dav,mOfawG[m 1950 eJ h 60 Mum; rSmom acwfrDcJhwJh av,mOfawG jzpfygw,f/ avaMumif; tuJ MunfhtwGuf TU4 eJ h B29 av,mOfBuD;awGudk oHk;cJhjyD; a&'g axmufvSrf;a&; pHepf[mvJ qdkAD,uf wdk h&J h1950 avmufu oHk;cJhwJh pHepfawG udk oHk;aecJh& ygw,f/ 'Dypnf;awG[m qdkAD,ufqDu &cJhwma&m? tJh'gawGudk uvHk; vkyfxm;wJh jynfwGif; jzpfawGyg yg0ifygw,fwJh/ wu,fawmh tJh'd pHepfawG[m &efbuf wwd, EdkifiHwpfck u 0ifwdkufvmcJh &if tvG,fwul ausmfvTm; zsufqD;cH &rSm jzpfygw,fwJh / tm&yf-tpa&; ppfyGJtwGif; zGwfzGwfnufnuf tacscH&wJh qdkAD,uf avaMumif; umuG,fa&; pHepfyHkpHawG jzpfaevdk hygyJ/

    acwfukefaewJh SA-2 / S-75 'Hk;ysHawGyg.. w&kwfu a[mifcsD-2 qdkjyD; jyefxkwfygw,f.. uRefawmfwdk jrefrmu tJh'gawG 0,fxm;w,f jynfwGif;rSm xkwfzdk hpOf;pm;aew,f vdk h zwfzl;wmygyJ..


    2008 tar&duef uGef*&uf tpD&ifcHpm rSmawmh w&kwfawG[m enf;ynmjrifh (SA-20 vdk hac:wJh) S-300 PMU-1 wma0;ypf qrfawG wyfqifxm;wJh wyfr 4 ck udk zGJ h pnf; jzef husuf xm;EdkifjyD jzpfjyD; bufpHk avaMumif;&ef umuG,fa&; pHepf (multi-layered Integrated Air Defence System (IADS)) wpfckudk wnfaxmif xm;jyDvdk h qdkygw,f wJh/ 'DESpf 2010 twGif;rSmwif &k&SqDu udk 2.25 bDvsH zdk; S-300PMU-2 tqifhjrifh 'Hk;ysH pHepf 15 ck xyfrH 0,f,lcJh wJhowif; zwfvdkuf& ygao;w,f/ onfhtjyif a&wyf twGuf S-300F awGudk vJ wyfqif xm;ygw,f/ 1992 uae wpfokwfjyD; wpfokwf 0,fcJh&mrSm w&kwfawGrSm vuf&Sd S-300 pHepfoHk; 'Hk;ysH aygif; wpfaxmif txd &Sdae ygjyDwJh/ S-300PMU-2 [m 'DpD;&D;xJrSm acwftrDqHk; jzpfygw,f / (&k&SawG qDrSm onfhxuf acwfrDwJ h S-400 'Hk;pHepf &SdaejyD jzpfjyD; S-500 'Hk;pHepfudk prf;oyf aeygw,fwJh... S-500 [m av,mOf rqdkxm;eJh 'Hk;ysHawGudk yg ypfcs EdkifwJh tpGrf; &Sdr,fvdk h rSef;Muygw,f/ tvsif u 5km/s ygwJh.. )

    S-300



    'D S-300 'Hk;ysHawG[m uDvdk 150 (rdkif90) twGif;0ifa&mufvmwJh av,mOfawG wifru r[mrdwf EdkifiHawG wGifwGifus,fus,f oHk;wJh c&kpf 'Hk;ysHawG udk wpfpuef hudk 2 uDvdk rDwm tvsif eJ hysHwufoGm;jyD; aumif;aumif; ypfcs Edkifygw,f/ a'gifvdkuf ypf&wJh wpfqifhuGJ trsdK;tpm;jzpfjyD; (tcsdK h'Hk;awGu axmifh apmif;ypfygw,f ) tjrifh rDwm oHk;aomif;txd wufEdkifygw,f/ 'Hk;ysHwpfpif;pD udk tvHkydwf pvif'gAl; wpfckpDxJ xnfhxm;jyD; 10 ESpfausmftxd jyKjyifxdef;odrf;rI r&SdbJ toifh wyfqif toHk;jyKEdkifygw,fwJh/ ypfrSwffvrf;nTef pHepf armf',f edrfhawGtwGuf Semi-active rader horming (SARH) a&'gpHepf udk oHk;ygw,f/ 'DpHepfa[mif;[m 'Hk;ysH wGif;rSm qifxm;wJh (onboard) a&'gi,feJh ypfwJhae&muae vrf;nTef aewJh (off obard) a&'g ESpfck aygif;pyfjyD; ypfrSwfudk OD;wnfwmyg/ 'Hk;ysH xJ u a&'g[m tifwifem t&G,f ao;i,fwm aMumifh tm;enf;ygw,f/ 'gudk ajrjyifu vTwfvdkufwJ h a&'g u ypfrSwfudk vTwfvdkufvdk hxdjyD; jyefvmwJh tm;eJh eJh tm;jznfhjyD; udk,fhzmom udk,f vrf;aMumif; wGufcsufjyD; OD;wnfoGm;wJh pHepfrsdK;jzpfygw,f/



    aemufqHk;ay: jzpfwJh S-300PMU awGrSmawmh TVR (Track Via Missile) pHepfudk oHk;ygw,f/ oluawmh a&'g[m ajrjyif station rSm&SdjyD; 'Hk;ysHxJrSmawmh receiver yJ &Sdygw,f/ receiver uae&wJh a'wmudk ajrjyifudk jyefydk hjyD; ajrjyifuae 'Hk;ysHudk jyef vrf;nTef ygw,f/ SARH xuf ydkrdk &SKyfaxG;wJh wGufcsuf vrf;nTefrIudk vkyfEdkif ygw,f/ 'DpHepfudk tar&duef wdk h&J hyufx&da&mh 'Hk;cGif;'Hk;pHepf rSm vnf; oHk;ygw,fwJh/ onfhtwGuf c&kpfvdk jrefEIH; edrf h 'Hk;ysHawGudk ypfcsEdkifpGrf; &SdoGm;wmyg/ tJh 'd S-300 'Hk;pHepf (battery) wpfckrSm 'Hk;wif,Of 4 wpfpD;yg0ifjyD; wpfpD;rSm toifhypfEdkifwJh 'Hk;ysH 4 pif; (aygif; 16) pif;yg0ifygw,f/ a&'gpHepf pHepfwif,Of awG eJ h uGefref;pifwm wpfck yg0ifygw,f/
    'Hk;pHepf (battery)

    w&kwfjynfwGif;&Sd 'Hk;pHepfjzef husufxm;onfh qdk'f wpfck

    wu,fawmh w&kwf[m 'D'Hk;vufeufawGudk 0,f,lcJh &Hkwifru xHk;pHtwdkif jynfwGif;rSmyg vdkifpif,ljyD; xkwfygw,f/ a[mifcsD-15 (HongQi-15) qdkwJh 'Hk;pHepf[m S-300 awGygyJ/ onfhtjyif 'D'Hk;ysHudk tajccHjyD; udk,fwdkif yHkpHxkwfwJh a[mifcsD-9 udk vJ us,fus,fjyef hjyefh xkwfvkyfzdk h BudK;pm;aew,fvdk h qdkygw,f/ wmvwf eJ h wma0;jypf trsdK;tpm;jzpfjyD; S-300 tajccH eJ hemrnfausmf yufx&da,mh &J henf;ynmawGudk wk,l aygif;pyf xm;w,fvdk h qdkygw,f/ w&kwf&J h bmyJ 0ifvmvm ypfcszdk h BuHpnfwJh (all in one ) 'Hk;cGif;'Hk; tpDtpOfvdk h ajymvdk h &ygw,f 'Dvdk pdwfwdkif;us tqifhjrSif hr,fh tBuHtpnf &Sd ayr,fh b,favmuftxd c&D;aygufaejyDvJ qdkwm udkawmh cef hrSef;vdk hr&ao; ygbl;wJh/

    a[mifusD 9 /

    (a[mifcsDqdkwm
    Red Flag .. wHcGefeD vdk hjyefvdk h&r,f xifw,f.. / tpa&;awGrSmawmh tJ&dk; qdkwJh 'Hk;cGif;'Hk; ya&m*suf&SdcJh zl;w,f/)


    r[kwfrcH-cGef;wHk hjyefaomf-rSefaomfvnf;&SH;-vlvnf;rkef;\/
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  9. #8
    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid Buzy Buzy Buzy   MrYoDa is on a distinguished road MrYoDa's Avatar
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    Default HQ-9 and TF-2000

    a[mifcsD 9 HQ-9 eJ hTF-2000



    S300 MPU / S300 PMU-1 eJ h S300 PMU-2 awG [m vwfwavmrSm w&kwf jynftwGuf acwftrDqHk;eJ h jynfyu ae wifoGif;wJh wma0;ypf av,Ofypf 'Hk;pHepfawGyJ jzpfygw,f/ onfh pHepf tjyif (oll hxuf edrf h jrifh wdwdususcef hrSef;vdk hr&wJh ) jynfwGif;xkwf a[mifcsD-9 (HQ-9) awGudkvJ toHk;jyKaeygw,f/ HQ-9 [m &moDra&G;? tjrifh ra&G; ypfcwfEdkifwJh SAM jzpfygw,f/ tar&duef awG uawmh w&kwf awG[m 'D'Hk;pHepf 8 ckuae 16 ck txd? ypfpif aygif; 64 ck ('Hk;ysH tpif; 240 ausmf avmuf ) jzef husuf xm;w,f vdk hrSef;xm;Mu ygw,f/ 'D'Hk;ysH eJ hywfoufwJh tao;pdwf tcsuftvufawGudk rodEdkifayr,fh olwdk h[m S300 udk tajccH xm;w,f/ 8 bD;,uf TEL (Transporter-Erector-Launcher) 'Hk;wif,mOf ( armf',f 5P85DU / tay: u a'gifzef; DF serirs awG udk ypfwJh ,OfawGu avmufrBuD;yg? o,f-axmif-ypf ,mOfvdk h bmom jyef& rvm;yJ) ay: uae a'gifvdkuf ypfvTwf &jyD;? 48N6 'Hk;ypf armfwm pHepfudk oHk;w,f/ onfhtjyif anti-radiation seeker wyfqifxm;jyD; ypfrSwf av,mOf &J h tDvufx&Gef;epf aESmifh ,SufrI t[ef h twm; awGudk ausmfvTm; Edkifw,f qdkwJh tcsufawGudkyJ tMurf;zsif; odMuygw,f/





    av,mOfypf 'Hk;ysHawG[m ,cifu 'Hk;ysHxJrSm a&'g xnfhoGif; xm;jyD; udk,fh vrf;udk &Smygw,f/ 'gayr,fh 'Hk;ysHxJu a&'g[m tm;enf;wJh twGuf ajrjyifuae tm;jznfhay;&ygw,f/ onfhtjyif ajrjyifuae t"du vrf;nTefwJh pHepfudkvJ tjcm; pHepf udkvJ oHk;jyef ygw,f/ a&'g[m av,mOfzsuf 'Hk;pHepftwGuf toufyJ/ 'ghaMumifh tpa&;awG[m &efol h avaMumif; ypfrSwf&Sm a&'gawG&J ha&'gvSdKif; udk cdkpD;yD; zsufwJh 'Hk;ysH eJ hvlrJh av,Of (drone) awG udk oHk;jyD; ajrjyifpcef;awGudk zsufcJh zl;ygw,f/ tJh'd tcgrSm ajrjyifu xdef;csKyf wJ hpHepf udk oHk;wJh 'Hk;ysH[m prf;w0g;0g; jzpfoGm; jyD; &efol hav,mOf&J htDvufxGef;epf wefjyefrI vrf;vTJay;rI udk rausmfvTm; Edkifawmhygbl;/ ajrjyifu yHhydk;ay;wJh pHepfoHk; vQifvJ ]t} oGm;ygw,f/

    TEL ay: u a[mifusD 9 /

    'Doabmw&m;udk em;vnfxm;[ef &SdwJh w&kwfawG[m &efol h&J h rdrd umuG,fa&; tpDtrH eJ h vSKyf&Sm;rI awGudk axmufvSrf;rI ( at0uf (
    AWACS) udk 'Dae&mrSm tJhvdk yJ ajym&r,f xifw,f) eJ htDvufx&Gef;epf ppfqifa&;awGudk wkef hjyef Edkifzdk hOD;wnfjyD; HQ-9 udk tajccHeJ h FT-2000 udk xkwfygw,f/ yHkyef; uGJjym;jcm;em;rI odyf r&Sd wJh trTmnDtpfudk jzpfayr,fh ukefusrI enf;oGm;jyD; anti-radiation rSm ydkrdk tm;omw,fvdk hqdkygw,f/ ol hrSm t&Ha&'gi,f- passive radar-homing seeker wpfckudk wyfqif xm;ygw,fwJh/ ajrjyifuae xdef;csKyfrI taMumif; wpfpHkwpf&m aMumifh aysmufysuf oGm;cJh &if ol hrSm wyfqifxm;wJh on-board rader udk oHk;jyD; ypfrSwf av,mOfudk qufjyD; OD;wnfrSmyg/ 'Hk;ysHudk ypfvTwfjyD;rS ajrjyifpcef; zsufqD;cHcJh &&ifawmif 'Hk;ysH[m ]t} roGm;bl; prf;w0g;0g; jzpfroGm;bl; qdkwJh oabmygyJ/ HQ-9 vdk anti-radiation pH epfygwJh twGuf ypfrSwfudk ydkjyD;xdxd a&mufa&muf OD;wnfEdkifr,fvdk hrSef;Muygw,f/
    HT-233 vrf;nTef a&'g


    yHkpH 120 ypfrSwf&Sm a&'g


    yHkpH 305 &kyfjuG ypfrSwf&Sm a&'g

    'Hk;vrf;nTef pHepfudkvJ
    TVM yJ toHk;jyKjyD; MIM-104 yufx&da&mh awGeJ hpGrf;&nf wlr,fvdk hcef hrSef; Muygw,f/ ypfcwf vrf;nTef pHepf wGuf HT-233 a&'gudk 8 bD;,uf ,OfBuD; wpfpD;ay: rSm wyfqifjyD; wGJzufxm; ygw,f/ (HQ-12 rSmoHk;wJh H-200 udkvJ oHk;Edkif ygw,f) 'Da&'gawG[m 360H eJ h a'gifvdkuf a&jyifnD uae txuf 65H txd? tuGmta0; tm;jzifh uDvdk 120 twGif; 0ifvmwJh avaMumif; ypfrSwf 100 udk &SmazGEdkifygw,f/ 300 MHz tifwifem eJ h receiver oHk;xm;wJh 'D C band a&'g[m tDvuf x&Gef;epf wefjyef aeSmifh,Suf rIawGudk ausmfvTm;Edkif avmufygw,f/

    onfhtjyif 'Hk;pHepf wpfckrSm
    Electronic Support Measures vrf;nTef a&'g 4 ck ygxnfhoGif;xm;ygw,f/ ypfrSwf 50 udk wpfjydKifwnf; udkifwG,f xdef;ausmif; Edkifygw,fwJh/ 'D a&'gawGudk uDvdk 30 pD jcm;jyD; jzef hxm;ygw,f/ 'Hk;ysH awGudkawmh yifr a&'g eJh twl rDwm 150 pD cGmjyD; ae&mcs ygw,f/ tjcm; pHepfawGeJ h ,Sufxm;jyD; pHepfwpfckeJ h wpfck ulnDEdkifatmif BuHpnf xm;[ef &Sdygw,f/ onfhtwGuf 'Hk;pHepf awGudk jzef hxm;cJh &if tvG,fwul tzsufqD; rcH&EdkifbJ zsufqD; cH&&ifawmif tpkvdkuf tjyH kvkduf tzsufqD;cH&r,fh ab;u a0;atmif pDrHxm; w,fvdk h,lq Edkifygw,f/ ypfrSwf&Sm zdk htwGuf u yHkpH 120 eJ hyHkpH 105 &kyfjuG a&'gawGudk oHk;ygw,f/ onfhtjyif HQ-9 eJ hTF-2000 awG[m &k&S &J h S300 'Hk;pHepfoHk; a&'g awGeJ hvnf; wGJbuf toHk;jyK Edkifr,fvdk h,lq Muygw,f/



    'Hk;ysH ypfpifawG? a&'gawG eJ h uGefref; pifwmawG tm;vHk;[m ,E
    ,m;wif (Self Propelled) awG csnf; jzpfaewJh twGuf vsifjrefpGm a&T hvsm; ae&m,l ypfcwf EdkifwJh tpGrf;vJ &Sdygw,f/ 'ghaMumifh wef;wl pHepfawGxuf vsifjrefpGm ppfupm; EdkifwJh pGrf;&nf &Sdaeygw,f/ 1998 rSm vljrifuGif;ukd xGufvmcJhwJh 'D'Hk;pHepf[m ueOD; w&kwf wyfrawmf twGuf &nf&G,f xkwfvkyf cJhayr,fh umv tawmfMumuyif ol hudk jynfywifydk h rI &SdcJhygw,f/ tdwfpydk hvkyfaewJh FD-2000 [m HQ-9 &J h tdwfpydk hAm;&Sif; jzpfygw,fwJh/ onfhtjyif FT-2000 udkvJ xkwfa&mif; zdk hurf;vSrf; wmawG &Sdygw,f/ ygupwef[m 'DpHepf tcsdK hudk &&Sd jyD;jyDvdk h h,HkMunf& ovdk tD&ef[mvJ 'DpHepfawGudk 0,f,l wyfqif vmEdkifw,fvdk hrSef;Mu ygw,f/ onfhtjyif vufwif tar&dueJ h awmiftm&S EdkifiHawGudk a&mif;cszdk hvJ BudK;pm; aeMu ygw,fwJh/ w&kwf[m HQ-9 tjyif a&wyfoHk; HHQ-9, tqifhjrSifhwifxm;wJh HQ-9A eJ h HHHQ-9A awGudk xkwfvkyf toHk;jyKaejyD jzpfwJh tjyif 2006 ESpfrSm HQ-9B qdkwJh Am;&Sif;udk prf;oyf cJhw,fvdk hqdkygw,f/ HQ-9 awG[m c&kpf awGudk ypfcsEdkifr,f vdk hrSef;Muayr,fh olwdk hudk 'Hk;cGif;'Hk;&,fvdk h r&nfnTeff;Mu ao;ygbl;/

    tapmydkif; a[mifcsD-9 yHkpH? ypfpifrSm 2 vHk;yJ wyfygw,f/

    qdkAd,uf awG&J h
    SA-2 *dk'fvdkif; 'Hk;ysH awGudk wkyjyD; a[mifcsD 2 (HQ-2) qdkwJh wma0;ypf avaMumif; umuG,fa&; 'Hk;ysHawGudk xkwfvkyfcJhwJh tawG htBuHK &SdjyD;om; jzpf wJh twGuf a[mifcsD 9 udk xkwfvkyf Edkifwm[m rxl;qef; vSbl; vdk h,lqp&m &Sdygw,f/ HQ-9 &J hyuwd toGifjyif[m qdkAD,u fawG&J h S 300 eJ hyHkpHwl jzpfayr,fh wu,fwrf; ol[m tar&duefawG&J h emrnfausmf yufx&da,mh 'Hk;pHepfudk wky xm;wmygwJh /

    w&kwfawG[m Mum;EdkifiH wpfckuae yufx&da,mh pHepfwpfckudk 1980 ESpfvGef ydkif;awGrSm &cJh ygw,fwJh/ pxkwfcsdefu 'Hk;ysH ESpfck omwifcJhwJh ypfpifudkomoHk;cJhjyD; qdkAD,uf awGqDu
    S 300 PMU awG&jyD; aemufydkif; S 300 pHepfawGeJ h aygif;pyf yHkpHxkwf cJhw,fvdk hqdkygw,f/ onfawmh a[mifcsD [m w&kwfvkyf qdkayr,fh tiftm;BuD; EdkifiHESpfck &J henf;ynmudk aygif;pyf xm;wJh 'Hk;ujym;av; vdk h hajym&rSmyg/ 'g[m vJ taemuf EdkifiHawGtwGuf 'D rdwftifcsdKif;em; 'Hk;ysHav;awGudk rxif rao; &Jao;bJ pdwf0ifwpm; apmifhMunhf aeMuapwJh tcsuf jzpfEdkif ygw,f/ onf ujym;av; awG[m ajrmfvifh xm;ovdk ydkacsm ydkpGrf;wwfMu rvm;? 'grSr[kwf a,mif;r jrif;pD; jyrvm; qdkwmu awmh a0[ifrSm ezl;awG h'l;awG h &ifqdkif ppfcif;MurSyJ aoao csmcsm odEdkif awmhrSmygyJ .... ... /

    Wiki
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    r[kwfrcH-cGef;wHk hjyefaomf-rSefaomfvnf;&SH;-vlvnf;rkef;\/
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  10. toHk;0ifvSaom pmydk'ftwGuf azmfjyyg rdwfaqG 20 OD;rS aus;Zl;wif&SdMuygonf


  11. #9
    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid Buzy Buzy Buzy   MrYoDa is on a distinguished road MrYoDa's Avatar
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    Default a[mifcsD 12 HQ-12

    rdrd e,fajrtwGif; 0ifvmwJh av,mOfawGudk ckcHwJh yxrtqifh[m wma0;ypf SAM awGeJ h vSrf;ypf zsufqD; ygw,f/ aemuf Mum;jzwf wdkufav,mOfawG eJ h 0ifa&muf [ef hwm; wdkufcdkuf&ygw,f/ onfhxuf uR HjyD; 0ifvm EdkifwJh &efol havaMumif; wdkufcdkufrI udkawmh wmvwfypf 'Hk;ysHawG eJ hwdkufcdkuf &ygw,f/ w&kwf[m wmvwf SAM taeeJ hudk,fydkif xkwfxm;wJh HQ 12 awGudk jzef husuf xm;ygw,fwJh / HQ 12 [m ueOD; qdkAD,ufawG&J h SA 2 eJ huvHk; a[mifcsD 2 'Hk;ysHta[mif;awGudk tpm;xdk;zdk h xkwfvkyfcJhwm jzpfygw,f/ 1980 avmufrSm pwifcJh jyD; 9 ESpfcef htMum rSm 'Hk;ysH a[mif;awGudk tpm;xdk;ypfcJh ygw,f/ HQ 12 &J h tqifh[m tar&duef wdk h&J ha[mhcf 'Hk;ysH eJ hwlw,fvdk hwef;,SOf xm;ygw,f/ 'gayr,fh ......

    a[mhcf 'Hk;ysH

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    a[mifcsD 12 ESifh iSif; \ wGJzufoHk; a&'g

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    yHkpH 82 uGyfuJa&; ,mOf

    HQ 12 udk udkif&Sef 1 qdkwJh trnfeJ h tdwfpydk hvkyfygw,f/ w&kwfawG [m 'D'Hk;ysHudk 1991 yg&D avaMumif; jyyGJrSm pwifyGJxkwf cJhygw,fwJh / 'gayr,fh 0,f,lzdk h pdwf0ifpm;cJh wJhol enf;cJh vdk haps;OD; raygufcJhygbl;/ onfhaemuf KS-1A tjzpf upgrade vkyfcJhygw,f/ 'DwpfBudrfrSmawmh 'Hk;ysHawGudk yHkao ae&mcs xm;wmrsdK; r[kwfawmhbJ x&yfum; ay: rSm wyfqifcJhwJh tjyif ypfrSwf&Sm eJ h vrf;nTef a&'g topfawGudk ajymif;vJ toHk;jyKjyD; aps;uGufudk wifygw,f/ 'D'Hk;vufeufawGudk rav;&Sm; u 0,f,lr,fqdkwJh owif;xGufcJh zl;ygw,f/

    HQ 12 [m tm;enf;csufawG &Sdaeayr,fh yHkwlul; xm;wm r[kwfbJ udk,fwdkif yHkpHxkwfcJhwJh avaMumif; umuG,fa&; 'Hk;ysH pHepf wpfckjzpfwmaMumifh J10 wdkufav,mOf vdk w&kwf&J h enf;ynm tqifhudk o&kyfjyEdkifwJh vufeuf wpfrsdK; vdk howfrSwfEdkifygw,f/
    r[kwfrcH-cGef;wHk hjyefaomf-rSefaomfvnf;&SH;-vlvnf;rkef;\/
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  12. toHk;0ifvSaom pmydk'ftwGuf azmfjyyg rdwfaqG 10 OD;rS aus;Zl;wif&SdMuygonf


  13. #10
    VIMC Godly Cupid   happyvalley is on a distinguished road
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    Default w&kwf'kH;ysHzcifMuD;

    ukd,kd;'a&.. ..a&;csifpdwf ay:vmvkdY eJeJ 0ifa&;yg&ap ?

    vGefcJhwJhESpftenf;i,f(2007 Zefe0g&D) u w&kwfu olY&Jh tokH;r0ifawmhwJh tmumoxJrSm&SdaewJh j*dK[fwka[mif;wpfvkH;ukd ajrjyifuae 'kH;vufeufeJY ypfcGif;jyD; tmumoxJrSmyJ zsufqD;ypfvkdufEkdif ygw,f/ onfvkd pGrf;yum; enf;ynm[m urmhxdyfwef;tqifhtwef;yJ jzpfygw,f/ w&kwfjynf&Jh tJonfvkd atmifjrifrSKpGrf;yum; aMumifh tar&dueftygt0if urmhEkdifiHtrsm;tjym;u thHMorSK eJY pkd;&drfrSKawG jzpfcJhMuygao;w,f/ tar&dueforw a&*ifvufxuf ppfat;acwfaESmif;rSm jzpfcJhwJh star wars vkdppfpDrHudef;awG ? ,SOfjydKifrSKawG wpfaMumhjyef jzpfvmOD;rvm;vkdY xifjrifcJhMuygw,f/

    ppfvufeufxkwfvkyfrSKtykdif;eJY tjcm;enf;ynmjrifhypnf;awG xkwfvkyfrSKtykdif;rSmvnf; w&kwf[m wjcm;aom wkdif;jynfrsm;eJY xyfcsyfruGm&Sdaeygw,f/ ppfvufeufxkwfvkyfrSKtaeeJY OD;aqmifoltcef; u@rSm r&Sdaomfvnf; vuf&Sdacwfukd rsufajcjywfjcif;r&SdapbJ vkyfaqmifaewmjzpfygw,f/

    w&kwf&Jh ppfvufeufxkwfvkyfrSKrSm ? txl;ojzifh 'kH;ysHenf;ynm ? tmumoodyH eJY EsLuvD,m; enf;ynm&yfawGukd ppfbufqkdif&mrSm tokH;cszkdY xkwfvkyfEkdifwJh tqifhtwef;ukd &&SdatmifMudK;yrf; cJhykHuawmh wu,fyJ xl;jcm;vSygw,f/ ,aeYqkd&if EkdifiHaygif;pkHu azmufonfrsm;twGuf j*dKvfwkrsm;ukd pD;yGm;jzpf vTwfwifay;ekdifwJh tqifhtwef;xda&muf&SdcJhjyDjzpfygw,f/

    ,aeY w&kwfjynftaeeJY tmumowGif;rSm vlvrf;avQmufEkdifwJh wwd,ajrmufEkdifiHtjzpfukd &&Sdatmif MudK;yrf;cJhwJh c&D;&SnfMuD;ukd vlom;wpfOD;u OD;aqmif pwifcJhwmjzpfygw,f/ oluawmh w&kwfjynf tmumo odyHynm&Jh zcifMuD;tjzpfowfrSwfcHxm;&wJh Qian Xuesen qkdwJh yk*dKvfMuD;yJjzpfygw,f/

    - Father of Chinese Aerospace
    - Rocket King
    - Founder of China's Space Program
    pojzifh ac:a0:jcif;cH&olvnf; jzpfygw,f/

    1957 Beijing

    Qian &Jhb0ZmwfaMumif;[m xl;jcm;vSygw,f/ 1911 ckESpfrSm arG;zGm;cJhwJh usdtef[m 1934 ckeSpfrSm
    &Sef[kdif;wuokdvfwpfckuae pufrSKtif*sifeD,mbGJYukd &&SdcJhygw,f/ 1935 ckeSpfrSmawmh abmufqmynmawmf oif qkukd&&SdcJhjyD; tar&dum;rSm&SdwJh
    MIT rSm ynmoifMum;&ef w&kwfjynfrS xGufcGmcJhygw,f/ aemufwpfESpftMumrSmawmh MIT uae pufrSKtif*sifeD,m r[mbGJYukd&&dSdcJhygw,f/
    ynmukd tvdktrif;vkdvm;aewJh usdtef[m aemufxyfemrnfausmf ausmif;wpfckjzpfwJh CalTech
    California Institute of Technology rSm urmausmf tJ&kd'kdif;erpfodyHYynm&SifwpfOD;jzpfwhJ
    [efa*&DEG,fzGm;
    Theodore von Karman vufatmufrSm ynmqnf;yl;cJhygw,f/

    German rocket scientist Ludwig Prandtl , Qian Xuesen, Theodore Von Karman

    1939 ckeSpfrSmawmh CalTech uae yg&*lbGJYukd &&SdcJhjyD; 1955 ckeSpf tar&duefEkdifiHrS xGufcGmcsdeftxd usdtef[m uJvfwufrSmyJ tvkyfvkyfcJhygw,f / 'kwd,urmppfMuD; jyD;pD;vktcsdefrSmawmh usdtef[m tar&duefavwyf AkdvfrSL;MuD;&mxl;tqifh ay;tyfjcif;cH&ygw,f/ ppfzufqkdif&m *suftif*sifrsm;ukd jyKvkyfay;jcif;jzpfygw,f/ 1949 ckESpfrSm *suftif*sifarmif;ESifrSK XmerSm ygarmutjzpf cefYxm;jcif;cHcJh&ygw,f/ tJonfumvupjyD; usdtefukd tar&duef&Jh xdyfwef; 'kH;ysHodyHynm&SifwpfOD;tjzpf tar&dueftpkd;&u owfrSwfxm;cJhygw,f/ olYq&mjzpfwJh um;ref;uawmh usdtefukd ]tjiif;yGm;zG,f&mr&SdwJh yg&rD&Sif} vkdYawmif rSwfcsufjyKcJhygw,f/

    1947 ckESpf &Sef[kdif;rSm usdtef[m tdrfaxmifjyKcJhygw,f/ vufxyfjyD;pD;wmeJY usdtef[m tar&dum;ukd jyefcJhygw,f/ MIT rSmoifMum;rSK&mxl;wpfckukd vufcH,lzkdYjzpfygw,f/ tar&dum;rSmyJ om;orD; 2 OD; &&SdcJhjyD; usdtef&Jh b0tvSnfhtajymif;uawmh 1949 ckeSpfrSm pwifjzpfay:vm ygawmhw,f /

    1949 ckeSpfrSm usdtef[m tar&duefEkdifiHom;cH,lcGifhukd avQmufxm;cJhygw,f/ ( armfpDwkH;&Jh w&kwfjynfolY orwEkdifiH aMujimjyD;rSvm;? raMujimcifvm;awmh rodygbl; ) tJonfvkd EkdifiHom;cH,lcGifh avQmufxm;aepOfrSmyJ usdteftay: pGyfpGJrSKawG ay:xGufvmygw,f/ uGefjrLepfwpfOD;jzpfaMumif;? uGefjrLepfpHepfukd vkdvm;olwpfOD;jzpfaMumif;? FBI u CPUSA qkdwJh tar&duefuGefjrLepfygwD&Jh 1938 ckeSpfu pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm;xJrSm usdtef&Jh emrnfyg&SdaeaMumif; xkwfazmfajymqkdcJhygw,f/ 1950 ckeSpf arvrSmawmh usdtef&Jh security clearance vkHjcHKa&;uif;&Sif;rSK ukd &kwfodrf;y,fzsufjcif; cH&ygawmhw,f/ tvkyfvkyfzkdY rjzpfEkdifawmhwJh taetxm;aMumifh usdtef[m w&kwfjynfukd jyefawmhr,fh olYtpDtpOfukd xkwfazmfajymMum; vkdufyg w,f/ usdtef&Jh tpDtpOfukd od&SdjyD;wJhaemufrSmawmh tar&dueftpkd;&u usdtefukd xdef;odrf; xm;vkdufygawmhw,f/ a&wyfykdifqkdifwJh oDjcm;ae&mwpfckrSm xm;&Sdygw,f/ tJ'Dvkd xdef;odrf; xm;pOftwGif;rSm a&wyftwGif;0efwpfOD;jzpfwJh Dan A Kimball qkdolu usdtefukd tar&dum;rSmyJ aezkdY ajzmif;jzajymqkdcJh wkdufwGef;cJhygw,f / usdtef&Jh udptay: tar&dueftpkd;&&Jh ukdifwG,fykHukd oabmrawGYwJh uif;abmu tckvkdrSwfcsufjyKcJhygw,f /

    '' It was the stupidest thing this country ever did. He was no more a Communist
    than I was, and we forced him to go.''

    aemufig;ESpfMumwJhtcsdef 1955 ckeSpftxd usdtef[m tus,fcsKyfoabmeD;eD; vkHjcKHa&;tapmifhrsm;&Jh
    apmifhMunhfrSKatmufrSm aexkdifcJh&ygw,f/ tJ'D ig;ESpfwm umvtwGif;rSm tar&duefeJY w&kwftpkd;&wkdY [mvnf; usdtefudpukd ajz&Sif;zkdY vQdKY0SufpGmndSESdKif;aecJhMuygw,f / tufzfbDtkdif? tifrD*a&;&Sif;wkdYeJY vnf; usdtef[m ajz&Sif;ae&ygw,f/ tar&dum;tjyifzufukd vQdKY0Sufckd;xkwfzkdY ,laqmifvmw,fqkdwJh pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm;[mvnf; wu,fwrf; prf;ppfMunhfwJhtcgrSmawmh bmrSta&;rMuD;wJh omref avmh*&rforf Z,m;rsm;jzpfaewmukd awGYMu&ygw,f/ usdtef&Jh pdwfxJrSmawmh tar&dueftpkd;&ukd tMuD;tus,f pdwfukefaejyD jzpfygw,f/ xdef;odrf;cHae&wJh umvwpfavQmufvkH;rSm usdtef[m uJvfwuf uvkyfazmfukdifzufrsm;&Jh ulnDaxmufyHHhrSKawG &cJhygw,f/ uJvfwuf&Jh OuX ukd,fwkdif 0g&SifweftxdoGm;jyD; usdtef&Jh ta&;ukd axmufcHajz&Sif; ay;cJhygw,f/ jyD;awmh usdteftwGuf a&SYaewpfa,mufukd iSm;&rf;ay;cJhygw,f/ a&SYae&Jh aemufqkH; rSwfcsufuawmh atmufygtwkdif;jzpfygw,f/


    '' That the government permitted this genius, this scientific genius, to be sent to
    Communist China to pick his brains is one of the tragedies of this century.''

    aemufqkH;rSmawmh usdteftaeeJY tar&dueftpdk;&tmPmydkifrsm;&Jh oabmwlnDrSKr&bJ wkdif;jynfuxGuf
    cGmzdkY MudK;pm;ygawmhw,f/ w&kwf0efMuD;csKyf csKtifvkdif; xH Oa&myw&kwfoH&kH;rSwpfqifh pma&;om; qufoG,fcJhygw,f/ aemufqkH;rSmawmh w&kwftpkd;&eJY tar&dueftpkd;&wkdY oabmwlnDrSK&&SdoGm; cJhygw,f/ udk&D;,m;ppfyGJtwGif;rSm w&kwfjynfu zrf;qD;rdxm;wJh tar&duefavol&J 12 OD;eJY usdtefukd vJvS,fzkdYyJ jzpfygw,f/ 1955 ckeSpfrSmawmh usdtef eJYtwl olYrdom;pktm;vkH;[m oabmwlnDrSKt& tar&dum;rS xGufcGmcGifh &&SdcJhygawmhw,f /

    vGefcJhwJh 15eSpfcefYu zwfcJhzl;wJh China today pmtkyfrSm usdteftaMumif;ukd tao;pdwfa&;om; xm;ygw,f / rSwfrdoavmufjyefajym&&if w&kwftpkd;&u usdtefeJYrdom;pkjynfawmfjyefzkdY pDpOfMu&mrSm oD;oefYav,mOfwpfpD; pDpOfay;w,fvkdY qkdygw,f/ 'gayr,fh usdtefu tJonf tpDtpOfukd jiif;y,fcJhjyD; w&kwfoabmFwpfpD;eJYyJ jyefzkdYpDpOfapcJhygw,f/ tpkd;&uvJ txl;vkHjcHKa&; tpDtrHrsm;eJY w&kwfoabmFwpfpD;ukd apvTwfay;cJhw,fvkdY od&ygw,f/

    ynm&Sifrme tjynfh&SdwJh usdtef[m tar&dum;uxGufvmwJhtcsdefrSmolY&hJokawoepm&Gufpmwrf ; awG? oifMum;rSK pm&Gufpmwrf;awGtm;vkH;udk xm;cJhygw,f/ bmpm&Gufpmwrf;rS w&kwfjynfukd r,laqmifcJhygbl;/ tJovkd jywfom;vSwJh ynm&Sifjzpfol usdtef[m w&kwfjynfjyefa&mufa&mufcsif; odyfrMumcifrSmyJ w&kwfodyGHtu,f'rD rSm 'g&kdufwmtjzpfaqmif&Guf&if; w&kwf'kH;ysHtpDtpOfukd OD;aqmifzGJYpnf;cJhygw,f/ odyHynmbGJY&rsm;xJu xdyfwef;vl 200 ukd pwifa&G;cs,fjyD; usdtefukd,fwkdif oifMum;avhusifh ay;cJhygw,f / wpfESpftwGif;rSmyJ usdtef[m w&kwfuGefjrLepf tpkd;&ukd ]wkdufcsif;ypf 'kH;ysHtpDtpOf}aqmif&GufzkdY tMuHjyKpmwrf;wpfapmifukd wifjycJh&mrSm tpkd;&u csufjcif;yJ vufcH twnfjyKay;cJjyD; 1956 ckeSpfrSmawmh usdtef[m tqkdygpDrHudef;&Jh yxrqkH;aom 'g&kdufwmjzpfvmcJhygawmhw,f / 1958 ckeSpfrSmawmh ]a'gifzef;} 'kH;ysHpDrHudef;ukd tjyD;owfa&;qGJ pDpOfcJhEkdifjyD; 1964 ckeSpfrSm atmifjrifpGm prf;oyfypfvTwfEkdifcJhygw,f/ w&kwfjynf&Jh 'kH;ysHeJY tmumowpfacwf[m wpfpxuf wpfp wkd;wufvmygawmhw,f /

    vGwfvyfwJh ynma&;eJY okawoetzGJYtpnf;rsm;&Jh rQwwJh oabm;xm;ukd xif[yfjycJhwJh jzpf&yfwpfck
    uawmh 1979 ckeSpfrSm usdtefukd Caltech uae Distingushed Alumini Award csD;jrifhcJhjcif;yJ jzpfygw,f/ 'gayr,fh usdtefu qkudkoGm;a&muf vufcH&,lzkYd jiif;y,fwJhtwGuf 2001rSmrS usdtef&Jh vkyfazmfukdifzufwpfOD;jzpfwJh rmb,fu yDuif;ukdvma&mufjyD; ay;tyfcJh&ygw,f/ tJonftcsdefrSm usdtef&Jhtouf[m 90 jynfhjyDjzpfygw,f/ 1990 ckeSpfrsm; tapmykdif;rSmawmh usddtef&Jh okawoe pmwrf;rsm;yg0ifwJh zkdifwGJrsm;ukd Caltech uae jyefvnfay;tyfcJhygw,f/ aemufykdif; w&kwf-tar&duefqufqHa&;rsm; jyefvnfaumif;rGefvmjyD;aemufrSmawmh AIAA u usdtefukd tar&dum;ukd tvnfvmzkdY zdwfac:cJhygw,f/ 'gayr,fh usdtefu zdwfMum;csufukd jiif;y,fcJhygw,f/ usdteftaeeJY tar&dueftpkd;&&Jh w&m;0if awmif;yefrSKukdom vkdvm;aewmjzpfygw,f/ usdtef&Jh rdwfaqGjzpfol rmb,fu ajymMum;&mrSmawmh usdtef[m tar&dueftpdk;&ukd vkH;0t,kHtMunfuif;rJhoGm;cJhayr,fh tar&duefjynfolrsm;tay:rSmawmh cspfcifaEG;axG;rSK&SdaeqJ vkdYqkdygw,f/

    usdtef[m 1991 rSm tjidrf;pm;,lcJhjyD; yDuif;rSmyJ wdwfqdwfjidrf;csrf;pGmaexkdifcJhygw,f/ tzkd;tkd usdteftaeeJY olcspfwJh w&kwfjynf&Jh vlvkdufygwJh tmumoc&D;pOfukdawmh aq;&kH ukwifay:uae wDADu wpfqifhjrifawGY oGm;cJh&ygw,f/ 2009ckeSpf atmufwkdbmvrSmawmh touf 98 ESpft&G,f &SdjyD
    jzpfwJh ? wkdif;jynftwGuf MuD;rm;wJhatmifjrifrSKawG aqmifusOf;ay;EkdifcJhol tzkd;tkd usdtefuG,fvGefoGm; cJhygw,f/


    Long March 4B Rocket , With Premier Wen in 2004 Nov.


    John Logsdon, former director of the Space Policy Institute at George Washington University. uajymMum;&mrSmawmh....
    "It was the anti-Communist mood in the 1950s that led him home."

    0DuDxJu a&;om;azmfjycsufrSmawmh usdtefeJYywfoufjyD; tckvkd awGY&ygw,f /
    He was not a communist in the US but became one in 1958.

    tkdif'Da&mfavmf*sDwkdufyGJ&Jh vGefqGJyGJrSmawmh tar&duef[m tzkd;wef vlom;wpfOD;ukd qkH;&SKH;vkduf&jyD; w&kwfjynfuawmh tzkd;rjzwfEkdifwJh vlom;wpfOD;ukd &&Sdvkdufjcif;yJ jzpfygawmhw,f /


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qian_Xuesen

    http://www.popsci.com/military-aviat...aut-walk-space

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boxer_R...ty_Scholarship

    http://www.boston.com/news/world/asi...sts_worldwide/

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodor...C3%A1rm%C3%A1n

    http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125721495250424443.html

    http://www.popsci.com/technology/art...-space-program
    Last edited by happyvalley; 01-08-2011 at 05:16 AM.
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  14. toHk;0ifvSaom pmydk'ftwGuf azmfjyyg rdwfaqG 20 OD;rS aus;Zl;wif&SdMuygonf


+ pmjyefNyD; qufa&;zdkU

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