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Thread: [mm]w&kwfjynfolY vGwfajrmufa&; wyfrawmf taMumif; odaumif;p&m[/mm]

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  1. #1
    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid Buzy Buzy Buzy   MrYoDa is on a distinguished road MrYoDa's Avatar
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    Default w&kwfjynfolY vGwfajrmufa&; wyfrawmf taMumif; odaumif;p&m

    w&kwfjynfolY wyfrawmf taMumif; ajym&rnfqdkvSsif w&kwf uGefjrLepfyg wDtaMumif; ESifh pum;OD;oef;&rSmyg/ w&kwfuGefjrLepf ygwD taMumif; ajymvSsif ulrifwefygwDESifh &SKyfaxG; &ufpuf vGef;vSaom tmPm vkyGJ rsm;udk tenf;tusOf;awmh odrSomvQif olY ordkif;eJY &yfwnfrI udk em;vnfEdkifygvdrfhrnf/

    yk&D
    a'gufwm qGef,ufqif

    w&kwfjynfukd refcsL; e,fom;awG odrf;ydkuf tkyfcsKyf NyD; wnfaxmifcJhwJh csif rif;quf[m aemufqHk; {u&mZf yk&D vufxufrSm MoZm ysufqD;cJh avonf/ yk&D [m 2 ESpfom; t&G,feJY wif bk&if jzpfcJhNyD; &ifcGifydkuf b0 eJY OD;&D;awmf eJY eef;wGif;u trwfawGu om tkyfcsKyf cJh ygonf/ vlrSef; rodwJh bk&ifi,fav; vufxufrSm t&m&m tm;enf;cJhNyD; tm;enf;,dk,Gif;NyD; a'gufwm qGef,ufqifvdk w&kwftrsdK;om; rsdK;cspfawG eJY ppfbk&ifawG [m refcsL; tmPmudk jzdKzsufNyD; orw EdkifiH xl axmifzkdY BudK;pm;vmMuygw,f/ ynmwwf vli,fawGMum; EdkifiHa&; tjrif us,fjyefYvmNyD; tif tm;BuD; xGm;vmwJh twGuf aemuf qHk; refcsL; bk&if[m &kyfjyoufoufom jzpfoGm;ygawmh onf/

    refcsL; rif;quf \tkyfpdk;rI udk vTrf;rdk; z,f&Sm;NyD; w&kwf orwEdkifiH (
    Republic of China) udk wnfaxmif&ef cJhMucsdef rSm wpfcsdefu refcsL; csifrif;quf&JY ppfAdkvfcsKyf (ppfbk&if) wpfOD;jzpfcJh ol ,Gef&Sdcdkif [m orw jzpfvmonf/ ya'o&mZf &dk;pGJ &SdwJh ,Gef&SDcdkif [m orw jzpfvm &wmudk tm;r&bJ zGJYpnf;yHk tajccHOya' udk jyifqifNyD; olYudk,fol tmPm&Sif tjzpf tkyfcsKyf&ef BuDK;pm;vm ygawmhw,f/ 1912 rSm a'guf wm qGef,ufqif \ &Jabmf&Jbuf wpfOD;jzpfol aqmif;usdK;&ef onf trsdK;om;ygwD udk pwif wnfaxmifcJh ygonf/

    ,Gef&SDcdkif
    aqmifusdK;&ef

    aemifwGif ulrifwef
    (KMT) [k xif&Sm;vmrnfh xdkygwDonf qGef,ufqif\ wkefref;a0SY toif; tygt0if w&kwfjynf twGif; trnftrsdK;rsdK; ESifh tpkpkjzpfaeaom EdkifiHa&; tkyfpkrsm;\ pkpnf;&mjzpfvm cJhonf/ 1913 a&G;aumufyGJwGif ulrifwefonf tjywftowf tEdkif&cJhNyD; ,Gef&SD cdkif\ tPmwnfjrJrI udk udkifvSKyf avawmhonf/ aqmif onf ygvDreftwGif; ,Gef&Sdckdifudk qefYusifbuf jyKonfh vSKyf&Sm;rI rsm;udk tifwkduf tm;wdkuf vkyfudkifcJhonf/ xdktcg tmPm pdwfrTefaeonfh ,Gef&SDcdkifonf aqmifusdK;&ef udk vkyfBuH owfjzwf vkdufonf/ wpfqufwnf;yif tjcm;aom awmfvSefa&; acgif;aqmifrsm;udk ygvkyfBuH owfjzwf &ef MuH pnfavonf/

    aqmif aoqHk;jcif;jzifh w&kwf ya'o&mZf awmfvSefa&; onf NyD;qHk;oGm;ouJh odkY jzpfoGm;NyD; a'gufwm qGef,ufqif onfvnf; *syef odkY xGufajy; &avonf/ 1913 wGif aEG&moDwGif awmifydkif; jynfe,f 7 ckonf ,Gef&SDcdkiftm; pwif ykefuefavawmhonf/ ,Gef&SDcdkifonf ulrifwef ygwDudk zsufodrf;&ef trdefYxkwfNyD; ygvDref twGif;rS z,f&Sm;um ygvDrefudk &yfqdkif; xm;cJhonf/ a&G;aumuf wifajrSmufonfh tpdk;& pHepfudk zsufodrf;NyD; ya'o&mZf pHepfudk toufoGif;&ef jyef BudK;pm;aeaom ,Gef&SDcdkifonf 1916 ZGefvwGif a&m*g b, ESdyfqufrIjzifh ewf&Gm pHoGm; avawmhonf/
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  2. #2
    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid Buzy Buzy Buzy   MrYoDa is on a distinguished road MrYoDa's Avatar
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    Default ar(4) ta&;awmfyHk

    ,Gef&SDcdkif aoonfESifh te,fte,f wGif tiftm;BuD; aeaom ppfbk&ifrsm;onf ayusif; tpdk;& tzGJYwGif BuD;pdk;vmMuonf/ w&kwfjyonfonf tpdwfpdwftrTmrTm yHkpHjzpfoGm;NyD; qdkif&m e,fy,f &Sd ppfwdkif;rI;rsm; u udk,fpD tkyfcsKyf aeMuonf/ orw EdkifiH rus ya'o&mZf EdkifiHrus tlaMumifusm; tpdk;& jzpfoGm; avonf/

    1914 yxrurmppf NyD;aom tcg &Sefa'gif; jynfe,fonf *syef vufatmifodkY a&mufoGm;onf/ udk&D;,m; ESifh e,fedrdwf xdpyfaeaom refcsL;&D;,m; awmifydkif;ESifh twGif;rGef*dk ,m; wdkY wGif *syef BuD;pdk;rI udk vufcHcJh &onf/ 1917 wGif w&kwfonf *smrPD udk ppfaMujim jyjcif;jzifh *syefESifh r[m rdwfjyKNyD; xdkjynfe,f rsm;udk jyef&vdk &jim;BudK;pm;cJh aomfvnf; ratmifjrifcJh/ 1918 wGif *syefESifh vSsdKY 0SufpmcsKyf csKyfNyD;&Sefa'gif; udk *syefydkif tjzpf todtrSwfjyKvdkuf &onf udk taMumif;jyKNyD; arv (4) &ufaeYwGif wGif ausmif;om;rsm; OD;aqmifonf qEjyyGJrsm; tBuD;tus,f ay: aygufcJhavonf/


    ar (4) ta&;awmfyHk twGif; ausmif;om; vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;

    ar(4) ta&;awmfyHk (
    May Fourth Uprising) [k ordkif;rSwfwdkif wGifcJhaom *syef ESifh tnHhcH w&kwf ppfbk&if tpdk;&udk qefY usif onfh ta&;tcif;onf w&kwf wdkY tMum; trsdK; om; a&;pdwf"gwfudk jyefvnf EId;qG EkdifcJhonf/ xdk ar 4 ta&;awmfyHk onf 1917 rS 1923 txd MumjrifhcJhaom rsdK;cspf ynmwwf ausmif;om;vli,frsm; \ ,Ofaus;rIopf vSKyf&Sm;rI (New Cultural Movemen) \ tiftm; tjrifh qHk; jzpfcJhavonf/

    xdkumv twGif; EdkifiH&yfjcm;wGif ynmoifNyD; ajrmufNyD; jyefvmMuaom w&kwfausmif;om;rsm; ESifh twl qdk&S,fvpf? Edkif iHa&; tawG;tjrifrsm; ESifh twl qdk&S,fvpf pHepfjzifh taemufwdkif;rSD w&kwfEdkifiH wnfaxmifa&; (
    Westernization of China) tawG;tjrifrsm; us,fjyefY vmonf/ xdktawG; tjrifrsm;onf aemifwGif ay: aygufvmrnfh w&kwfuGefjrL epfygwD\ a&aomufjrpf jzpfvmavonf/ ar 4 ta&;awmfyHk umvwGif wufjuGonfh vIyf&Sm;ol jzpfonfh armfpDwkef; onf ( yDuif; wuodkvf pmMunfhwdkufrI; tjzpf aqmif&Guf aecJhonf/ ) aemifwGif uGefjrLepfygwD acgif;aqmif wpfa,muf jzpfvmcJhavonf/

    csefau&Sdwf

    1919 wGif waMumhjyef ya'o&mZf awmfvSefa&; jyefvnf pwifNyD; a'gufwm qGef,ufqifonf uGrf;&SD; jynfe,f wGifpifNyDKif tpdk;&\ ppfOD;pD;csKyf jzpfvmonf/ ulrifwefudk jyefvnf pkpnf;NyD; yDuif; ppfbk&if tpdk;&udk tHwk avawmhonf/ ppfbk&ifrsm; \ A[dk tkyfpdk;rIudk z,f&Sm; Edkifaomfvnf; ajrmufydkif;wGif ajcukyf ,lxm;onfh ppfbk&ifrsm; usef&Sd aeao; ojzifh w&kwfjynf onf awmifydkif;ESifh ajrmufydkif; uGJoGm;onf/ 1921 wGif qGef,ufqif awmifydkif; wGif orw EdkifiHudk jyefvnf wnfaxmif onf/

    awmifydkif;\ orw jzpfvmonfY qGef,uf qifonf 1925 rwfv uifqm a&m*gjzifh ol uG,fvGefcsdef txd ajrmufydkif;ESifh aygif;pnf; Edkifa&;udk tpGrf;ukef BudK;pm; cJh&Smonf/ qGef,ufqif uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf csefau&Sdwf onf w&kwfawmfvSefa&; wyfrawmf\ ppfOD;pD;csKyf jzpfvmNyD; refcsL; acwf vufusef ppfbk&ifrsm; udk tjyif;txef ESdrfeif; avawmhonf/ 9 vtwGif; w&kwf EdkifiH wpf0uf ausmfudk jyefvnf pkpnf;EdkifcJh onf/ odkYaomfvnf; 1926 wGif ulrifwef ygwDwGif; vuf0J vuf,m uGJjym;rI jzpfcJhNyD; uGefjrLepfwdkY tiftm; BuD;vm avawmhonf/
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  3. #3
    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid Buzy Buzy Buzy   MrYoDa is on a distinguished road MrYoDa's Avatar
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    Default

    w&kwfuGefjrLepf ygwDudk 1921 wGif vDwcsdK ESifh csefwkpl; wdkY u pwif wnfaxmif cJhMuonf/ qGef,ufqif\ OD;aqmifrIjzifh ulrifwefESifh uGefjrLepfwdkY udk r[mrdwftjzpf aygif;pnf;NyD; w&kwfjynf wpf0Srf; BuD;pkd;aeaom ppfbk&ifrsm;udk tHwk ESdrfeif; EdkifcJhonf/ odkYaomf r[mrdwf tzGJY ESpfcktMum; awG;ac: ydkif; qdkif&m jyoemrSm rI MuD;xGm; onfxuf BuD;xGm; vmcJhonf/ qGef,ufqif uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf ulrifwefwdkY onf ydkrdktiftm; BuD;xGm; vmNyD; uGefjrLepfwdkYudk awmfvSefa&; r[mrdwf tjzpfrS xkwfy,fum ESdrfeif;cJhonf /

    vDwcsdK csefwkpl;

    odkYESifh w&kwfuGefjrL epfygwDonf ajratmuf tzGJYtpnf; wpfck jzpfoGm;avonf/ 1926 -27 ulrifwef wkdY\ ESdrfeif;rI aMumifh tiftm;csnfh eJhoGm;aom ygwDudk armfpDwkef; ESifh csLtifvdkif;wdkY ESpf OD; rS jyefvnf pkpnf;um wnfaxmifcJhonf / armfwdkYonf wyfrI; wpfOD;jzpfol csLaw; ESifh aygif;pnf;rdNyD; w&kwfjynf awmifydkif; &Sd [leefESifh uGrf;&SD; e,fpyf rS tpjyKum uGefjrLepf tpdk;&i,f wpfckudk pwif wnfaxmifcJhonf/ ulrifwef wdkYudk &ifqdkif&efESifh uljrLepfEdkifiH wpfck wnfaxmif Ekdif&ef twGuf ppftiftm; wpfck r&Sdrjzpf vdktyfonf qdkonfudk oabm aygufcJhonfh uGefjrLepfwdkYonf v,form; vlwef; pm;udk tajccHum tiftm;udk wnfaxmifcJhNyD; xdkv,form;rsm;udk ajymufusm; ppfom;rsm; tjzpfavhusifh ay;cJhavonf/

    armfpDwHk; rm&S,f csLaw;

    1928 wGif v,form;ESifh tvkyform; ajymufusm; tiftm;pk wdkYudk aygif;pnf; vdkufonfh tcg tiftm; 10000 cefY &Sdonfh wyfeDawmf [k ac: onfh wyfrawmf wpfck jzpfvm avawmhonf/ armf onf EdkifiHa&; acgif;aqmif tjzpf aqmif&Guf cJhNyD; csLaw; onf ppfacgif; aqmiftjzpf wm0ef,lcJhonf/ xdkY aMumifh csLaw;onf w&kwf wyfeDawmf? w&kwf jynfolY vGwfajrmufa&; wyfrawmf\ zcifBuD; tjzpf owfrSwfcH cJh &onf/

    1931 wGif 0lusefESifh uGrf;&SD; jynfe,fESpf ck yg0ifaom w&kwf qdkAD,uf orw tpdk;& (
    Chinese Soviet Republic) udk wnfaxmifavonf/ (qdkAD,uf qdkwm tvkyform; tzGJYtpnf;rsm; udk &nfnTef;onf...) / csefau&Sdwf OD;aqmifonfh ulrifwef tpdk;&onf uGefjrLepf tpdk;&udk tjyif;txef ESdrfeif; avonf/ ajrmufydkif;rS tiftm;jzifh NydKqif;vm aomuGefrifwef wyfrsm;&efrS vGwfajrmuf&ef uGefjrLepfwdkY BuHpnf &awmhonf/



    1934 atmufwdkbmwGif ygwD acgif;aqmifrsm;? wyfeD ESifh uGefjrLepf axmufcHol tiftm; wpfodef; ausmfonf csefau&Sdwf wyfrsm;\ xdk;ppfrS vGwfuif;Edkif&ef twGuf uGrf;&SD; jynfenfe,fudk pGefYcGmNyD; w&kwfjynf taemuf awmifydkif;ESifh taemufajrmufydkif; a'orsm; udk 0dkif;ywfum csdefau&Sdwf wyfrsm;udk a&Smif&Sm;vsuf ajrmufydkif; &Sef&SD; jynfe,ftxd &Snfvsm;pGm csDwuf qkwfcGmcJh&onf/ armf? csLaw;? csLtifvdkif;? wdefY a&Smifzdef vDusifherf ponfh uGefjrLepf acgif;aqmif rsm;ESifh wyfeD wyfrI;rsm; OD;aqmifonfh xdk 0dkufywf qkwfcGmrI BuD;onf c&D;&Snf csDwufyGJ
    (logn march) [k ordkif;wGifcJhonf/

    c&D;&Snf csDwufyGJ vrf;aMumif;
    users.erols.com/mwhite28/longmarc.htm

    uDvdkrDwm 12500 ausmf? jynfe,f 11 ck? awmifwef; aygif; 18 ckudk jrpf 24 pif; udkjzwfausmf cJhaom 1 ESpfausmf MumjrifhcJhonfh xdkAsL [m ajrmuf qkwfcGmrI aMumifh w&kwf uGefjrLepf ygwDonf tESdrfeif;cH&rnfh ab;rS vGwfajrmufcJhNyD; &SD,Grf jynfe,f
    &eftef wGif ygwD XmecsKyfudk zGJYpnf;u tiftm;jyefvnf wnfaxmif cJhonf/ csLaw;onf aemifwGif w&kwf jynfolY vGwfajrmufa&; wyfrawmf (People's Liberation Army) \ ppfOD;pD;csKyf jzpfvmcJhonf/

    csLtifvdkif; jrefrm EdkifiH c&D;pOfrS
    or
    wBuD; a'gufwm bOD;? OD;Ek ESifh csLtifvdkif;

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  4. #4
    Noble Contributor Senior Cupid   Aung Aung Oo is on a distinguished road
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    Default

    w&kwfppfwyf[m w&kwfuGefjrLepf ygwD&JY aemufcH trmcH tiftm;tjzpf awmufavsmuf &SdcJhygw,f/ ppft&m&SdawG[mvnf; uGefjrLepf ygwDrSm tqifhqifhaom wm0efawGudk ,lxm;Muygw,f/ 'gayrJh ppft&m&SdawGu ygwDudk csKyfudkifwJh tqifhudk wpfcgrS ra&mufcJhygbl;/ w&kwfppfwyfudk pwifxlaxmifcJhwJh acgif;aqmifawGtm;vHk;uvnf; ygwDudk ppfwyfxuf OD;pm;ay;cJhMuygw,f/ ygwDxJrSm om tiftm;pk tiftm;jydKifjyD; ppfwyfudk aemufcHjyKjyD; tmPm&&Sda&;udk rusdK;pm;cJhbl;vdk rSwfrdygw,f/
    'gaMumifh vlawGu uGefjrLepf ygwDomvsif w&kwfjynfwGif; jzpfysuforSs&J wm0ef&Sdolvdk jrifMu owfrSwfMuwmyg/ 'gaMumifh wD,efrif ta&; tcif;rSm w&kwfppfwyfu tiftm;oHk; jzdKcGJcJhayrJh uGefjrLepf ygwDudkom vlrkef;rsm;jyD; ppfwyfudk w&m;cH tjzpf w&kwfjynfolawGu rowfrSwfcJhMuyg/
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  5. toHk;0ifvSaom pmydk'ftwGuf azmfjyyg rdwfaqG 3 OD;rS aus;Zl;wif&SdMuygonf


  6. #5
    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid Buzy Buzy Buzy   MrYoDa is on a distinguished road MrYoDa's Avatar
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    Default w&kwfvufeuf xkyfvkyfrI

    w&kwf[m ppfoHk;pm;&dwf twGuf ESpfpOf 84 bDvsH ausmfudk oHk;w,fvdk h0DuD t&od&ygw,f / tJh'dyrmP[m tqifh 2 ae&mrSm &SdjyD; urmh pkpkaygif;ppfoHk;pm;&dwf &J h 5 % ausmf &Sdygw,fwJh/ (tar&duefu bDvsH 600 ausmfoHk;jyD; 40% ausmf &Sdygw,f) / vufeuf wifydk h a&mif;csrI rSmawmh tqifh 7 ae&mrSm &SdjyD; jyD;cJhwJh ESpfrSm a':vm oef; 800 ausmfzdk ;wifydk ha&mif;cscJhygw,f/ 'g[m 10 pkESpfwpfck twGif; av;qausmf wufvmwmygyJ/ (tar&duef jynfaxmifpku 6.7 bDvsH zdk ;wifydk ha&mif;csygw,f)/ onfhtjyif ol[m jynfyuae acwfrDvufeufawG jyef0,f,lygao;w,f/ 'DESpf 2009 twGif;rSm ol[m oef;aygif; 600 eD;yg; zdk; vufeuf 0,f,lcJhygw,fwJh/ 'gayr,fhtJh'd yrmP[m vGefcJhwJh 10 ESpf 2000 u 0,f,lcJhwJh 2 bDvsH zdk;eJ h,SOf&if trsm;BuD; enf;oGm;ygw,f/ enf;yg;oGm;&wJh taMumif; t&if;rSm ol hEdkifiHtwGif;rSm udk,fwdkif vufeuf xkwfvkyfEdkifpGrf; wdk;wufvmwJh jy,k*f wpfck vdk hoHk;oyfEdkifygw,f/

    w&kwfjynfol hwyfrawmf[m 'kwd, urmppf twGif; *syefudk wdkufcdkuf cJh&muae oHcsyfum,Ofrsm;? wifhum;rsm;? tajrmufrsm;? pufaoewfBuD;rsm; yg0ifwJh ppfvufusef ypnf; trsm;tjym;udk odrf;ydkuf EdkifcJh ygw,f/ onf vufusef ypnf;awGudk toHk;jyK jyD; ajcvsifwyfom &SdcJhwJh wyfeDudk wifhum;eJ h ,E,m;wyfawG vufeufBuD; wyfawG tjzpfwdk;csJ hzGJ hpnf;cJh ygw,fwJh /

    uGefjrLepfawG tmPm &jyD; aemufydkif;rSm r[mrdwfcsif; axmufyHhrI tpDtpOfawG eJ h qdkAD,ufawG qDu wD 55 wifhum;vdk wifh um;awG udkom ru onfvufeuf awGudk xkwfvkyf wJh enf;ynmeJ hpufawGudk &,lcJhygw,f/ 'gayr,fh uGefjrLepfcsif; twGif;&efaqmifaeMuwJh qdkAD,uf[m w&kwfudk acwfrDenf;ynm awG ray;cJhygbl;/ olay;cJhorQ [m 'kwd, urmppfvufusef ppfypnf;awGeJ henf;ynm awGcsnf; jzpfygw,fwJh/ onfhaemufydkif; qdkAD,ufawGeJ hrl0g'a&;&m &efbuf awGjzpfvmcJh jyD; 1960 rSm qdkAD,ufawGbufu tultnDawGeJ htBuHay;awGudk &kwfodrf;cJhygw,f/

    w&kwfawG[m onfvufeufawGudk avhvmjyD; yHkpHwl,l xkwfcJhygw,f/ 'ghaMumifh vJ w&kwfvkyfvufeufawG [m aoewftp wifhum;tqHk; yHkpH (
    Type) b,favmuf qkdjyD; xkwfvmwmygyJ/ (uRefawmfwdk hjrefrmjynfu 0,foHk;wJh F7 awG[m qdkADvufvkyf rpf21 awGudk uvHk;xm;wmygyJ/ 'Dav,mOfawGu AD,uferf ppfumvwkef;u acwftrDqHk; pm&if;xJ rSmygygw,f/ ) onfhtjyif armfpDwHk; eJ h AdkvfcsKyfvifaAsmif wdk h&J hjynfol hppf r[mAsL [m aMumifh or&dk;us vufeufawGudk acwfrD atmif xkwfvkyfzdk hodyfpdwf 0ifpm;cJh[ef r&Sdygbl; / onftusdK;quf[m 1979 rSm AD,uferfeJ hjzpfcJhwJh ppfyGJrSm vufawG hcHpm;&ygawmhw,f/ crmeDawGudk 0ifwdkufwJh AD,uferfudk zdtm;ay;zdk hAD,uferfajrmufydkif;udk w&kwfwyfawG 0ifwdkuf&mu jzpfvmwJh ppfyGJyg/ ppftiftm; ESpfodef;ausmf eJ hwifh um; 600 ausmf (yHkpH 63? 62 eJ h 59) oHk;jyD; AD,uferf ajrmufydkif;udk 0ifwdkufygw,f/

    AD,uferf awG[m tiftm; ckepfaomif;ausmf eJ hAD,uferfppfvufusef tar&duef vufeufawGudk oHk;jyD; ck hcHcJhyg w,fwJh/ tiftm;eJ hzdEdkifcJhayr,fh AD,uferfxJ 0ifvmwJh w&kwfwyfawG[m AD,uferf wifhum; tenf;tusOfudk wdkufzdk hwifhum;zsuf vufeuf aumif;awmif r&SdcJ hygbl;wJh / w&kwf ppfom; awG[m wifhum; csdef;BudK;eJ hbD;tMum; opfom;wHk;awG xdk;xnfhjyD; wifhum;udk &yfoGm;atmif taocHjyD; vkyfcJh Mu& ygw,fwJh/ ypfjyD;ruGJ wJh jynfwGif;jzpf vufypfAHk; 'PfuvJ rao;cJhygbl;/ pm&if; twdtus xGufrvm cJhayr,fh taemufEdkifiH awGuawmh w&kwfppfom; ESpfaomif; ajcmufaxmifausmf usjyD; wifhtm; 400 zsufqD; cH&w,fvdk hcef hrSef;Muygw,f/
    (AD,uferf;bufu tustqHk; ydkrsm;ayr,fh) 'g[m tar&duef vdk wwd, EdkifiHBuD;eJh ,SOf&wJh ppfyGJrsdK;r[kwfbJ rdrd xuf tiftm;enf;wJh EdkifiHwpfck eJ h,SOfwdkuf&wJh ppfyGJwpfck&J h&vm'f jzpfaeygw,f/

    Type 92 wifhum;rsm;

    1970 aESmif;ydkif; armf0g'DawG tiftm;usqif;jyD; acwftawG;tac: &SdwJh acgif;aqmifawG wufvmtcsdef rSmawmh w&kwfawG [m taemuf&J henf;ynmudk vdkufEdkifzdk htm&Hk pdkufcJhygw,f/ tar&duef jynfaxmifpk eJ htaemuf Oa&myEdkifiHawG txd ppfbufrpf&SifawG udkapvTwf avhvm apcJhygw,f/ jynfyuae wifydk h&wJh vufeuf awG&J henf;ynm tqifhtwef;udk wdk;jrSifh uef howf vdkufjyD; vufeuf vdktyfcsufudk jynfyEdkifiHawG tay: rSDcdkae&rIudk enf;enf;orQ enf;atmif avsmhcszdk hay:vpDawG cscJh ygw,f/ 1977 uae 87 txd umv tydkif;tjcm;[m acwfrD ppfwyfjzpfapzdk htwGuf jyKjyif ajymif;vJrIawG vkyfwJh umvawGvdk hajymvdk h&ygw,f/ 'gayr,fhvJ 1990 cef htxd w&kwf awG[m tDvufx&Gef;epf ppfqifa&;? vufeuf uGyfuJrI pHepfawG? ypfrSwf wdus apwJh yJxdef; pHepfawG eJ haxmufvSrf;a&; tydkif;rSm enf;ynm acwfrrD wmawG? t&nfaoG; nHhzsif;wmawG pwJh tm;enf;csuf awG &SdcJhygw,fwJh / ol h&J h enf;yg;wJh bwf*suf[mvJ t[ef h htwm;wpfck jzpfaecJh ygw,f/

    AD,uferfeJ hjzpfwJh ppfjyD; aemufydkif; 1987 rSm w&kwfjynf[m acwfrD vufeufrsm; xkwfvkyf zdk htpDtpOfrsm; a&;qGJ cJhygw,fw,f/ onf tpDtpOfrSm ppfoHk; yHhydk; ypnf; okawoe eJ hxkwfvkyfa&;? acwfrD enf;ynm oHk; vufeuf xkwfvkyfa&; eJ h enf;ynm okawoe qdkwJh u@ 3 ck yg0ifygw,f/ wwd, tkyfpkjzpfwJh enf;ynm yHhydk;rI [m 'kwd, jzpfwJh acwfrD vufeuf xkwfvkyfa&; twGuf vdktyfwJh okawoeeJh enf;ynmudk &SmazGay;zdk h yg/ w&kwf&J hvufeufxkwfvkyfrI toHk; pm;&dwf[m ppfoHk; pm;&dwf&J h 45% &SdcJhygw,f/ onftxJu 25% udk ppfav,OfawG xkwfvkyfzdk h? 15% udk Munf;wyf oHk; vufeufawG xkwfvkyfzdk heJ h? 10% udkawmh a&wyfeJ h 'Hk;vufeufawG xkwfvkyfzdk hoHk;cJh ygw,f/ w&kwf&J hppfvufeuf xkwfwJh pufrI ZHk[m urbmay: rSm wwd,ajrmuf tBuD;qHk; ppfoHk; vufeufxkwf pufrI ZHk jzpfjyD; usnfqH utp tEkjrLoHk; a&ikyf oabmF txd vufeuftrsdK; tpm;aygif; rsm;pGmudk xkwfvkyf Ekdifygw,f/ 'gayr,fh tapmydkif;rSm xkwfvkyf vdkufwJh vufeufawG[m t&nftaoG; nHHhzsif;jyD; toHk;rus ygbl;wJh/

    w&kwf&J h acwfrDvufeuf tpDtpOf &J hyxrtqifh[m 'dkif;xlatmif vkyfzdk hta&;yJ jzpfygw,f/ umuG,fa&; OD;pm;ay;jzpfwJh ajrjyifwyfawGtwGuf wifhum;zsuf vufeufawG? avaMumif;&ef umuG,fa&; pHepfawG? oHcsyfumcGif; usnfawG? &[wf,OfeJ haxmufydk h,E,m;awG? ypfrSwf wdusapwJh pHepfawG udk avhvm okawoe vkyfcJygw,f/ a&wyf rSmvJ oabmFzsuf'Hk; eJ ha&ikyfoabFm ppfqifa&; eJ htDvufx&Gef;epf enf;ynmawG tjyif avwyftwGuf tDvufx&Gef;epf ppfqifa&; eJ hvufeuf uGyfuJrI pHepfawG tydkif;udk ydkrdk tm&Hk pdkufcJh ygw,f/ xkwfvkyfa&; tiftm;pk tydkif;udk wjznf;jznf;csif; wdk;csJ zGJ hpnf;vm&m ckcsdefrSm ppfbuf xkwfvkyfa&; aumfykda&;&Sif;BuD; 11 ck txd &SdaejyD jzpfygw,f (uGefjrLepfqdkawmh tm;vHk; EdkifiHydkifawG aygh..)/ &vm'fu jrSm;eDvdk wifhum;zsufvufeuf eJ h a'gifzef; vdk wmvwfypf 'Hk;ysHawG? 155 rr tajrmufBuD;awG eJ h qdkAD,uf yHkpHwky tqifhjrSifhxm;wJh avaMumif; umuG,fa&; pHepfawG
    ay: xGufvmcJh wmygyJ/

    wHcg;zGifh0g' eJ htwl wdk;wufzGH hjzdK; vmwJh pD;yGm;a&;aMumifh "etiftm; awmifhwif;vmwJh w&kwfawG[m ppfvufeuf okawoe jyKrI eJ hxkwfvkyfrI tydkif;rSm vJ tawG htaBuHK eJ ht&Sdef aumif;aumif; &aeygjyD/ udk,fydkif yHkpH enf;ynmjrifh wdkufav,mOfudk xkwfvkyfEdkifzdk hbDvsH eJ hcsD tukefcHjyD; okawoe vkyfcJhygw,f/ 1980 txd 'kwd,urmppf usef wD 55 yHkpHa[mif; wifhum;awG ae&m rSm (&k&S wD99 vdk) yHkpH 99 eJ hyHkpH 97 vdk jynfwGif;jzpf acwfrD wifhum; awGudk tpm;xdk; vdkufygjyD/ tPkjrL xdyfzl; txd o,f EdkifwJh wmvwfypfeJ hwma0;jypf 'Hk;ysH awGudk yHkpHxkwf xkwfvkyf jzefhusuf xm;EkdifjyD jzpfygw,f/
    J11 vdk &k&Svkyf SU 27 udk wdk;csJ hrGrf;rH xm;jyD; oabFmzsuf vufeufawG udkOD;pm;ay; wyfqifxm;wJh wdkufav,OfawG udk vnf; ol ha&wyfrSm toHk;jyK aejyD jzpfygw,f/ 'gh tjyif J 10 vdk w&kwfudk,fydkif yHkpHxkwf Mum;jzwf wdkufav,mOfawG wGifwGif us,fus,f xkwfvkyf toHk;jyK EdkifaeygjyD/ J 14 vdk haumvm[mv owif;xGufaewJh rsdK;qufopf wdkufav,mOf udkvnf; okawoejyK aeMujyDvdk hrSef;aeMu& ygjyD/ oabmFzsuf wmvwfypf 'Hk;ysH rsdK;udk prf;oyfzdk hwmqlaeovdk 'Hk;cGif;'Hk; tpDtpOfudkvJ pOf;pm; aeMuygjyD/ 'gayr,fh transparency enf;yg;rI aMumifh ol xkwfvkyfwJh vufeufawG &J hpGrf;&nf twdtusudk cef hrSef;EdkifpGrf; r&SdMu ao;ygbl;/ rnfodk hyifjzpfap ppfa&; enf;ynm tydkif;rSm vnf; taemuf EdkifiHawGudk rDvk rDcifjzpfaejyDvdk hoHk;oyfwJh olawGu oHk;oyfaeMu ygw,f../ onfvdk 'dkif;xl atmif vkyfjyD;&ifawmh vSHxufatmif pGrf;aqmif&m tpDtpOf &SdygaMumif; ol h&J ha&yef; pm;aewJh av,mOfwif oabFm tpDtpOfawGu t&dyfta,mif jyaeovdk ygyJ.. /

    J 10
    tqifhjrSifh aeaom J10B


    tar&duef F16 ESifh J10B udk EIdif;,SOfxm;yHk( awmfawmfwkxm;wmyJ) (from a blog)
    SU27 udk rGrf;rHxm;aom J11

    pdwful;,Of J14
    r[kwfrcH-cGef;wHk hjyefaomf-rSefaomfvnf;&SH;-vlvnf;rkef;\/
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  7. #6
    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid Buzy Buzy Buzy   MrYoDa is on a distinguished road MrYoDa's Avatar
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    Default w&kwf avaMumif;umuG,fa&;

    'dkif;xl zdk hyxrtqifh t"du xm;cJhwJh w&kwf[m rsufarSmuf ppfyGJ awG&J h tc&muswJh avaMumif; pdk;rdk;rI &&Sda&; twGuf BudK;pm;vmwJh &efoludk b,fvdk umuG,frvJ/ qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpkBuD; jydKuGJcsdef 1991 ck ESpftxd w&kwf &J havaMumif; umuG,fa&;[m or&dk;us av,mOfypf puftajrmufawG eJ h qdkAD,ufqDu &,lcJhwJh S-75 eJ h SA-2 'Hk;ys HpHepf awG yJ &SdcJhygw,f/ trsm;odwJh qrf awGaygh../ qrf (SAM) qkdwm Surface to Air Missile &J htwdkaumufyg/

    usL; ausmfvmwJh &efol havwyfudk Mum;jzwfwdkufzdk htwGuf
    J7- J6 -J8 wdkufav,mOfawGyJ &SdcJhygw,f/ 'Dav,mOfawG[m 1950 eJ h 60 Mum; rSmom acwfrDcJhwJh av,mOfawG jzpfygw,f/ avaMumif; tuJ MunfhtwGuf TU4 eJ h B29 av,mOfBuD;awGudk oHk;cJhjyD; a&'g axmufvSrf;a&; pHepf[mvJ qdkAD,uf wdk h&J h1950 avmufu oHk;cJhwJh pHepfawG udk oHk;aecJh& ygw,f/ 'Dypnf;awG[m qdkAD,ufqDu &cJhwma&m? tJh'gawGudk uvHk; vkyfxm;wJh jynfwGif; jzpfawGyg yg0ifygw,fwJh/ wu,fawmh tJh'd pHepfawG[m &efbuf wwd, EdkifiHwpfck u 0ifwdkufvmcJh &if tvG,fwul ausmfvTm; zsufqD;cH &rSm jzpfygw,fwJh / tm&yf-tpa&; ppfyGJtwGif; zGwfzGwfnufnuf tacscH&wJh qdkAD,uf avaMumif; umuG,fa&; pHepfyHkpHawG jzpfaevdk hygyJ/

    acwfukefaewJh SA-2 / S-75 'Hk;ysHawGyg.. w&kwfu a[mifcsD-2 qdkjyD; jyefxkwfygw,f.. uRefawmfwdk jrefrmu tJh'gawG 0,fxm;w,f jynfwGif;rSm xkwfzdk hpOf;pm;aew,f vdk h zwfzl;wmygyJ..


    2008 tar&duef uGef*&uf tpD&ifcHpm rSmawmh w&kwfawG[m enf;ynmjrifh (SA-20 vdk hac:wJh) S-300 PMU-1 wma0;ypf qrfawG wyfqifxm;wJh wyfr 4 ck udk zGJ h pnf; jzef husuf xm;EdkifjyD jzpfjyD; bufpHk avaMumif;&ef umuG,fa&; pHepf (multi-layered Integrated Air Defence System (IADS)) wpfckudk wnfaxmif xm;jyDvdk h qdkygw,f wJh/ 'DESpf 2010 twGif;rSmwif &k&SqDu udk 2.25 bDvsH zdk; S-300PMU-2 tqifhjrifh 'Hk;ysH pHepf 15 ck xyfrH 0,f,lcJh wJhowif; zwfvdkuf& ygao;w,f/ onfhtjyif a&wyf twGuf S-300F awGudk vJ wyfqif xm;ygw,f/ 1992 uae wpfokwfjyD; wpfokwf 0,fcJh&mrSm w&kwfawGrSm vuf&Sd S-300 pHepfoHk; 'Hk;ysH aygif; wpfaxmif txd &Sdae ygjyDwJh/ S-300PMU-2 [m 'DpD;&D;xJrSm acwftrDqHk; jzpfygw,f / (&k&SawG qDrSm onfhxuf acwfrDwJ h S-400 'Hk;pHepf &SdaejyD jzpfjyD; S-500 'Hk;pHepfudk prf;oyf aeygw,fwJh... S-500 [m av,mOf rqdkxm;eJh 'Hk;ysHawGudk yg ypfcs EdkifwJh tpGrf; &Sdr,fvdk h rSef;Muygw,f/ tvsif u 5km/s ygwJh.. )

    S-300



    'D S-300 'Hk;ysHawG[m uDvdk 150 (rdkif90) twGif;0ifa&mufvmwJh av,mOfawG wifru r[mrdwf EdkifiHawG wGifwGifus,fus,f oHk;wJh c&kpf 'Hk;ysHawG udk wpfpuef hudk 2 uDvdk rDwm tvsif eJ hysHwufoGm;jyD; aumif;aumif; ypfcs Edkifygw,f/ a'gifvdkuf ypf&wJh wpfqifhuGJ trsdK;tpm;jzpfjyD; (tcsdK h'Hk;awGu axmifh apmif;ypfygw,f ) tjrifh rDwm oHk;aomif;txd wufEdkifygw,f/ 'Hk;ysHwpfpif;pD udk tvHkydwf pvif'gAl; wpfckpDxJ xnfhxm;jyD; 10 ESpfausmftxd jyKjyifxdef;odrf;rI r&SdbJ toifh wyfqif toHk;jyKEdkifygw,fwJh/ ypfrSwffvrf;nTef pHepf armf',f edrfhawGtwGuf Semi-active rader horming (SARH) a&'gpHepf udk oHk;ygw,f/ 'DpHepfa[mif;[m 'Hk;ysH wGif;rSm qifxm;wJh (onboard) a&'gi,feJh ypfwJhae&muae vrf;nTef aewJh (off obard) a&'g ESpfck aygif;pyfjyD; ypfrSwfudk OD;wnfwmyg/ 'Hk;ysH xJ u a&'g[m tifwifem t&G,f ao;i,fwm aMumifh tm;enf;ygw,f/ 'gudk ajrjyifu vTwfvdkufwJ h a&'g u ypfrSwfudk vTwfvdkufvdk hxdjyD; jyefvmwJh tm;eJh eJh tm;jznfhjyD; udk,fhzmom udk,f vrf;aMumif; wGufcsufjyD; OD;wnfoGm;wJh pHepfrsdK;jzpfygw,f/



    aemufqHk;ay: jzpfwJh S-300PMU awGrSmawmh TVR (Track Via Missile) pHepfudk oHk;ygw,f/ oluawmh a&'g[m ajrjyif station rSm&SdjyD; 'Hk;ysHxJrSmawmh receiver yJ &Sdygw,f/ receiver uae&wJh a'wmudk ajrjyifudk jyefydk hjyD; ajrjyifuae 'Hk;ysHudk jyef vrf;nTef ygw,f/ SARH xuf ydkrdk &SKyfaxG;wJh wGufcsuf vrf;nTefrIudk vkyfEdkif ygw,f/ 'DpHepfudk tar&duef wdk h&J hyufx&da&mh 'Hk;cGif;'Hk;pHepf rSm vnf; oHk;ygw,fwJh/ onfhtwGuf c&kpfvdk jrefEIH; edrf h 'Hk;ysHawGudk ypfcsEdkifpGrf; &SdoGm;wmyg/ tJh 'd S-300 'Hk;pHepf (battery) wpfckrSm 'Hk;wif,Of 4 wpfpD;yg0ifjyD; wpfpD;rSm toifhypfEdkifwJh 'Hk;ysH 4 pif; (aygif; 16) pif;yg0ifygw,f/ a&'gpHepf pHepfwif,Of awG eJ h uGefref;pifwm wpfck yg0ifygw,f/
    'Hk;pHepf (battery)

    w&kwfjynfwGif;&Sd 'Hk;pHepfjzef husufxm;onfh qdk'f wpfck

    wu,fawmh w&kwf[m 'D'Hk;vufeufawGudk 0,f,lcJh &Hkwifru xHk;pHtwdkif jynfwGif;rSmyg vdkifpif,ljyD; xkwfygw,f/ a[mifcsD-15 (HongQi-15) qdkwJh 'Hk;pHepf[m S-300 awGygyJ/ onfhtjyif 'D'Hk;ysHudk tajccHjyD; udk,fwdkif yHkpHxkwfwJh a[mifcsD-9 udk vJ us,fus,fjyef hjyefh xkwfvkyfzdk h BudK;pm;aew,fvdk h qdkygw,f/ wmvwf eJ h wma0;jypf trsdK;tpm;jzpfjyD; S-300 tajccH eJ hemrnfausmf yufx&da,mh &J henf;ynmawGudk wk,l aygif;pyf xm;w,fvdk h qdkygw,f/ w&kwf&J h bmyJ 0ifvmvm ypfcszdk h BuHpnfwJh (all in one ) 'Hk;cGif;'Hk; tpDtpOfvdk h ajymvdk h &ygw,f 'Dvdk pdwfwdkif;us tqifhjrSif hr,fh tBuHtpnf &Sd ayr,fh b,favmuftxd c&D;aygufaejyDvJ qdkwm udkawmh cef hrSef;vdk hr&ao; ygbl;wJh/

    a[mifusD 9 /

    (a[mifcsDqdkwm
    Red Flag .. wHcGefeD vdk hjyefvdk h&r,f xifw,f.. / tpa&;awGrSmawmh tJ&dk; qdkwJh 'Hk;cGif;'Hk; ya&m*suf&SdcJh zl;w,f/)


    r[kwfrcH-cGef;wHk hjyefaomf-rSefaomfvnf;&SH;-vlvnf;rkef;\/
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  8. #7
    Wannabe Cupid ASEAN Biggest Army   MMDW is on a distinguished road MMDW's Avatar
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    တရုပ္စစ္တပ္ရဲ႕ ေလေၾကာင္းရန္ကာကြယ္ေရး လက္နက္ေတြထဲက ေခတ္မွီ လက္နက္ေတြကို ဆက္လက္ေဖာ္ျပေပးၾကပါဦးဗ်ာ..အမ်ိဳးအစား-၉၅ လို အမ်ိဳးေတြေပါ့ အေတာ္ေကာင္းတ့ဲ အမ်ိဳးအစားဗ်..ဘယ္ႏိုင္ငံမွ မေရာင္းဘဲ ထားတ့ဲ စနစ္ပါ။
    Type-95 SPAAG အမ်ိဳးအစားပါ။
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  9. toHk;0ifvSaom pmydk'ftwGuf azmfjyyg rdwfaqG 20 OD;rS aus;Zl;wif&SdMuygonf


  10. #8
    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid Buzy Buzy Buzy   MrYoDa is on a distinguished road MrYoDa's Avatar
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    Default

    SPAAC qdkwm Self Propelled Anti Aircraft Gun &J htwdkyg/ jrefrmvdk qdk ,E,m;wif av,mOfypf tajrmuf vdk hoHk;EIH;&r,f xifygw,f/ 'DyHkpHawGudk 'kwd, urmppfuwnf;u av,mOfypf pufaoewfBuD;awGudk csdefwyf,mOfawG ay: wifjyD; *smref eJ h &k&SawG oHk;cJh zl;ygw,fwJh.. / wmvwf avaMumif;umuG,fa&; eJ h Mum;jzwfwdkufav,mOfawGudk uRH jyD; 0ifvmwJh av,mOfawGudk acsrIef;zdk h oHk;wJhpHepfjzpfygw,f/ w&kwf wmwdk avaMumif;&efumuG,fa&;pHepf &J h tm;xm;&m wpfckjzpfwJh yHkpH 95 SPAAG awGu ueOD; qdkAD,ufawG&J h ZSU 23 &Sdufum pHepfudk yHkpH,lxm;wmygwJh.. / ol hpHepfu oHcsyfum ,mOf ay: rSm 25 rDvD puftajrmuf av;ck udk wyfxm;wmyg/ ypfcwfrI udk wmwdk a&'geJ hxdef;ygw,f/ w&kwfawG[m yHkpH 95 (PGZ 95) &J ha&S hajy; udk 1980 jynfhvGefawGrSm pwif yHkpHxkwf cJh ygw,f/

    tJh'daemuf w&kwfwdk hxHk;pHtwdkif; armf'Dzdkif; tqifhqifh vkyfygw,f/ 1987 0ef;usifavmuf rSm qdkAD,ufxuf tqifhjrifhwJh tDwvD &J h
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    ef htwGif; wkef hjyefEdkifavmufatmif jrefygw,fwJh./

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    supply twGuf oD;jcm;,mOfwpfpD; yg yg0ifzGJ hpnf;xm;ygw,f/

    pufaoewfawG &J hypfcwfrI [m tuGmta0;tm;jzifh wkdygw,f.. tvGefqHk; 5 uDvdkxuf rydkygbl;wJh? tajzmifh ypfcwfrI tuGmta0; (
    slant range udktJhvdk yJ jyef&rvm; rod.. usnfu tJh'd tuGmta0; aemufydkif;qdk atmufudk jyefusoGm;a&m..? usOfoGm;vrf;u rsOf;auG; udk; ) qdk ydkenf;ygw,f/ ol hrSm wyfqifxm;wJh pufaoeyfawG[m 2.4 uDvdkrDwmuae 3.5 uDvdk rDwm twGif;u ypfrSwfudk ypfEdkif ygw,f/ onfhxuf a0;wJh ae&mu aecsOf;uyfjyD; a0[ifuae ajrjyifypf 'Hk;awGeJ h&efjyK hr,fh &efol h av,mOf &[wf,mOfawGudk awmh ol hrSm wyfxm;wJh 'Hk;ysHav;pif; udk oHk;jyD; 6 uDvdk rDwm tuGmta0; uwnf;u &efjyK Edkifygw,fwJh.. / ae hn ra&G;? &moDOwk ra&G; vSKyf&Sm; ypfcwfEdkifwJh 'DpHepf[m wmwdk avaMumif;umuG,fa&;pHepfrSm taumif;qHk; wpfckvdk hqdkEdkifygw,fwJh/

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  11. #9
    Godly Cupid One for All, All for One   chitpa is on a distinguished road chitpa's Avatar
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    awmfMum w&kwfa&'gaysmufav,mOfu w&kwfeJ. &k&Sm;&J.a&'gawGrSm aysmufjyD; taemufeJ.tar&du&J.a&'grS raysmufrS [kwfayhjzpfaeOD;r,f
    bmyJ ajymajym e0w tmPmodrf;jyD;aemufydkif;av;rS wHcg;zGifhjyD; wdk;wufoGm;wm 'Dtqifha&mufjyDqdkawmh csD;usL;p&myg


    udk,frSefoa&G. acgif;ra&G.


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  13. #10
    VIMC r[m;',m; Cupid Buzy Buzy Buzy   MrYoDa is on a distinguished road MrYoDa's Avatar
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    J-20 qdkayr,fh tJh'gu w&m;0if trnfr[kwf ao;jyefbl;.. / J-20 vdk h,lq&w,faygh / av,mOf taMumif; w&kwfbufu w&m;0if owif; xkwfjyefwm r&Sdovdk taemuf rD'D,mrSmvJ owif;r&cJhbl;/ w&kwf av,mOfprf; wmudk &dkufxm;wJh AD'D,dkudk 'DESpfqef; rSm ,lusL hrSm segregator236 qdkwJh ,lZm wpfa,muf u wifvdkufw,f/ av,mOf ajy;vrf;ay: rSm oGm;aewm eJ h cP ysHwufwm yJ ygw,f.. / 'DESpfqef;rSm tifwmeufay: pw,f 'gh aMumifh prf;oyfwm rMumao;bl; vdk h,lqMu&w,faygh .. /

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    aemuf av,mOfudk,fxnfudk a&'D,dkvSdKif; jyefEdkifwJh ow
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    w&kwf av,mOfu aumif;aumif; ysH rwufao;awmh b,fa&'geJ hzrf;&if rdrvJ qdkwmawmh rodao;bl;aygh.. /


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  14. toHk;0ifvSaom pmydk'ftwGuf azmfjyyg rdwfaqG 13 OD;rS aus;Zl;wif&SdMuygonf


+ pmjyefNyD; qufa&;zdkU

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